How to format your references using the Digestion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCammon C: Geophysics. Deep diamond mysteries. Science 2001;293:813–814.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sorensen EJ, Sammis GM: Chemistry. A dash of proline makes things sweet. Science 2004;305:1725–1726.
A journal article with 3 authors
Idzko M, Ferrari D, Eltzschig HK: Nucleotide signalling during inflammation. Nature 2014;509:310–317.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mills EM, Banks ML, Sprague JE, Finkel T: Pharmacology: uncoupling the agony from ecstasy. Nature 2003;426:403–404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blumberg LM: Temperature-Programmed Gas Chromatography. Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2010.
An edited book
Hu W-S (ed): Cell Culture Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
von Lücken C, Brizuela C, Barán B: Clustering Based Parallel Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms Using the Shape of the Objective Vectors; in Gaspar-Cunha A, Henggeler Antunes C, Coello CC (eds): Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part II. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 50–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestion.

Blog post
Andrew D: How Claw Machines Are Rigged. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Critical Infrastructure: Challenges Remain in Protecting Key Sectors. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas LE: Youth Art Ambassadors: A Youth Participatory Action Research Project Using Social Justice to Incite Change in Classrooms where Teachers Teach Young People of Color 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J: A Flightless Bird Grounded by DNA. New York Times 2017;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestion
ISSN (print)0012-2823
ISSN (online)1421-9867

Other styles