How to format your references using the Digestion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poeppelmeier K. Solid state chemistry. A mixed oxide-hydride perovskite. Science. 2002 Mar;295(5561):1849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jutzi M, Asphaug E. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon. Nature. 2011 Aug;476(7358):69–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kutnjak Z, Petzelt J, Blinc R. The giant electromechanical response in ferroelectric relaxors as a critical phenomenon. Nature. 2006 Jun;441(7096):956–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hillman TR, Yamauchi T, Choi W, Dasari RR, Feld MS, Park Y, et al. Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halbich IW. Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union; 1993.
An edited book
Milutinović DL. Cells and Robots: Modeling and Control of Large-Size Agent Populations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Porschen S. Algorithms for Rectangular Covering Problems. In: Gavrilova M, Gervasi O, Kumar V, Tan CJK, Taniar D, Laganá A, et al., editors. Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2006: International Conference, Glasgow, UK, May 8-11, 2006. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006; pp 40–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestion.

Blog post
Luntz S. Iron Disrupts Appetite Hormone, Possibly Triggering Obesity [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automatic Data Processing: A Career Challenge. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terrell ND. Exact solutions to combinatorial optimizations and the traveling baseball fan problem. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
STEVEN LEE MYERS; C.J. Chivers contributed reporting from Beslan for this article, Melikhovo SKF. PUTIN SAYS RUSSIA FACES FULL “WAR” TO DIVIDE NATION. New York Times. 2004 Sep;11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestion
ISSN (print)0012-2823
ISSN (online)1421-9867

Other styles