How to format your references using the Digestion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneider MD. Development. A cardiac nonproliferation treaty. Science. 2011 Apr;332(6028):426–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff S, Dillin A. Cell biology: The stressful influence of microbes. Nature. 2014 Apr;508(7496):328–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou Z, Clarke JA, Zhang F. Archaeoraptor’s better half. Nature. 2002 Nov;420(6913):285.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Condon D, Zhu M, Bowring S, Wang W, Yang A, Jin Y. U-Pb ages from the neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China. Science. 2005 Apr;308(5718):95–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ansons AM, Davis H. Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Kowalik JS, Gorski J, Sachenko A, editors. Cyberspace Security and Defense: Research Issues: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Cyberspace Security and Defense: Research Issues Gdansk, Poland 6–9 September 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Hanke J. Quadratic Forms and Automorphic Forms. In: Alladi K, Bhargava M, Savitt D, Tiep PH, editors. Quadratic and Higher Degree Forms. New York, NY: Springer; 2013; pp 109–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestion.

Blog post
Andrew E. Leonard Nimoy Has Passed Away At Age 83 [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Feb [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Maritime Administration: Proceeds from the Sale of Obsolete Vessels Were Accounted for, Allocated, and Disbursed Consistent with Applicable Law. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky WD. An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey G. A Tiger and a Yankee Ponder Baseball’s Thrilling Finishes. New York Times. 2011 Sep;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestion
ISSN (print)0012-2823
ISSN (online)1421-9867

Other styles