How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2007). Georgia on the mind. Nature 445, 790–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, R., and Wang, Y. (2013). Neural mechanism for sensing fast motion in dim light. Sci. Rep. 3, 3159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cubrović, M., Zaanen, J., and Schalm, K. (2009). String theory, quantum phase transitions, and the emergent Fermi liquid. Science 325, 439–444.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Diaz-Herraiz, M., Jurado, V., Cuezva, S., Laiz, L., Pallecchi, P., Tiano, P., et al. (2013). The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings. Sci. Rep. 3, 1440.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, D. A. (2014). Interpreting Land Records. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Villani, V. ed. (2011). Differential Topology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujii, K. (2012). “Role of RANS, Hybrid and LES for Wing Flow Simulations at Relatively Low Reynolds Numbers,” in Progress in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling: Papers Contributed to the 4th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, Beijing, China, September 2011 Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design., eds. S. Fu, W. Haase, S.-H. Peng, and D. Schwamborn (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sociology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). How Well You Do In School Reflects Dozens Of Genetic Traits. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). School-Age Children: Poverty and Diversity Challenge Schools Nationwide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindsey, M. M. (2010). Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006). Justices Order Rethinking Of eBay Case. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2007; Li and Wang, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Wang, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Diaz-Herraiz et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sociology
AbbreviationFront. Sociol.
ISSN (online)2297-7775

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