How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Informatics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Informatics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.L. Gaeta, Optics. Collapsing light really shines, Science. 301 (2003) 54–55.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.D. Jordan, M.A. Johnson, Chemistry. Downsizing the hydrated electron’s lair, Science. 329 (2010) 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Berton, C.-G. Hahn, M.E. Thase, Are we getting closer to valid translational models for major depression?, Science. 338 (2012) 75–79.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.R. Hipkin, D.J. Simpson, S.J. Wainwright, M.A. Salem, Nitrification by plants that also fix nitrogen, Nature. 430 (2004) 98–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Bachmann, A. Steinle, V. Hahn, Bauen mit Betonfertigteilen im Hochbau, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010.
An edited book
B. Akhgar, S. Yates, eds., Intelligence Management: Knowledge Driven Frameworks for Combating Terrorism and Organized Crime, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
T.B.T. Nguyen, H.A.L. Thi, H.M. Le, X.T. Vo, DC Approximation Approach for ℓ0-minimization in Compressed Sensing, in: H.A. Le Thi, N.T. Nguyen, T.V. Do (Eds.), Advanced Computational Methods for Knowledge Engineering: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Applications - ICCSAMA 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Informatics: X.

Blog post
T. Hale, China’s Bizarre Traffic-Straddling Bus Has Actually Been Built, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Better Guidance Would Improve ADP Evaluations in Support of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. De Anda, Factors that contribute to the stigma of mental illness, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hollander, Gimelstob Works the Crowd, New York Times. (2000) D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Informatics: X
ISSN (print)2590-177X

Other styles