How to format your references using the Alcohol citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alcohol. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hafner, S. D. (2003). Ecology: Is fertilization efficiency misleading? Nature, 422(6930), 397–398; discussion 398.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kimura, S., & Yoshioka, K. (2014). Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone type-1 receptor accelerate myocyte differentiation. Scientific Reports, 4, 5066.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller, M. F., Wright, J. D., & Kent, D. V. (2011). Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6023), 1404–1409.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, Y., Nagashima, K., Kanai, M., Meng, G., Zhuge, F., Rahong, S., Li, X., Kawai, T., & Yanagida, T. (2014). Nanoscale size-selective deposition of nanowires by micrometer scale hydrophilic patterns. Scientific Reports, 4, 5943.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cortada, J. W. (2014). The Essential Manager. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bowles, S. (2011). Introduzione all’economia politica: Le dinamiche del capitalismo (R. Edwards & F. Roosevelt, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marelli, E., & Signorelli, M. (2010). Transition, Regional Features, Growth and Labour Market Dynamics. In F. E. Caroleo & F. Pastore (Eds.), The Labour Market Impact of the EU Enlargement: A New Regional Geography of Europe? (pp. 99–147). Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alcohol.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, April 5). Does Torture Actually Work? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). DP Insurance: A Management Tool (No. 137543). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luna, S. C. (2010). An integrated treatment program for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chang, S. (2006, March 23). Parents Held In Murder Of Girl, 4, Long Missing. New York Times, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hafner, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hafner, 2003; Kimura & Yoshioka, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kimura & Yoshioka, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Schaller et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (He et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlcohol
ISSN (print)0741-8329
General Medicine
Behavioral Neuroscience
Health(social science)

Other styles