How to format your references using the Journal of Biomedical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomedical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.C. Martinson, Universities and the money fix, Nature. 449 (2007) 141–142.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Lubchenco, N. Sutley, Science policy. Proposed U.S. policy for ocean, coast, and Great Lakes stewardship, Science. 328 (2010) 1485–1486.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Wu, J.R. Parquette, T.V. RajanBabu, Regiodivergent ring opening of chiral aziridines, Science. 326 (2009) 1662.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Zhou, R. O’Connell, P. Maguire, H. Zhang, High throughput secondary electron imaging of organic residues on a graphene surface, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7032.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Stamp, Information Security, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
S. Ludwigs, ed., P3HT Revisited – From Molecular Scale to Solar Cell Devices, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Quan, X. Gong, J. Fang, J. Li, Star Map Processing Algorithm of Star Sensor and Autonomous Celestial Navigation, in: J. Li, X. Gong, J. Fang (Eds.), INS/CNS/GNSS Integrated Navigation Technology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 145–183.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomedical Informatics.

Blog post
T. Hale, These Pens Use Ink Made Out Of Recycled Air Pollution, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Better Information Needed for Oversight and Evaluation of Selected Elementary and Secondary Education Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Rossi, Anesthesiology, geriatric surgery, and the risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, Some Friends Just Aren’t Huggers, New York Times. (2017) C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomedical Informatics
AbbreviationJ. Biomed. Inform.
ISSN (print)1532-0464
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Health Informatics

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