How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scholl, A., 2000. ANTIFERROMAGNETISM: Taking a Very Close Look at Magnetic Structures. Science 288, 1762–1763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ngai, J.T., Srivastava, D.S., 2006. Predators accelerate nutrient cycling in a bromeliad ecosystem. Science 314, 963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malmgren, R.D., Ottino, J.M., Nunes Amaral, L.A., 2010. The role of mentorship in protégé performance. Nature 465, 622–626.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong, R., Zhou, L., Wang, D., Hao, J., 2013. Molecular aggregates in stable aqueous three-phase surfactant systems and their use in producing CdS nanowires. Sci. Rep. 3, 1663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mead, J.M., Gruneberg, S., 2013. Programme Procurement in Construction. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Choi, S. (Ed.), 2010. Systems Biology for Signaling Networks, Systems Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Pendleton, E.A., FitzGerald, D.M., 2005. Comparison of the Hydrodynamic Character of Three Tidal Inlet Systems, in: FitzGerald, D.M., Knight, J. (Eds.), High Resolution Morphodynamics and Sedimentary Evolution of Estuaries, Coastal Systems and Continental Margins. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 83–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Killing Whales For Science: Japan Is Sent Back To The Drawing Board [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Science Indicators: Improvements Needed in Design, Construction, and Interpretation (No. PAD-79-35). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Usborne, E.L., 2012. Sediment and phosphorus dynamics behind weirs in agricultural drainage ditches (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crawford, S., 2014. Back to the Digital Drawing Board. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scholl, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ngai and Srivastava, 2006; Scholl, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ngai and Srivastava, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanics
AbbreviationJ. Biomech.
ISSN (print)0021-9290
Biomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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