How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crutzen, P.J., 2004. A late change to the programme. Nature 429, 349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jernvall, J., Fortelius, M., 2002. Common mammals drive the evolutionary increase of hypsodonty in the Neogene. Nature 417, 538–540.
A journal article with 3 authors
Willis, G.L., Moore, C., Armstrong, S.M., 2014. Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina. Sci. Rep. 4, 3921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van der Hilst, R.D., de Hoop, M.V., Wang, P., Shim, S.-H., Ma, P., Tenorio, L., 2007. Seismostratigraphy and thermal structure of Earth’s core-mantle boundary region. Science 315, 1813–1817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schepers, U., 2004. RNA Interference in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Edge, C.S., 2010. Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server: From Solo Install to Enterprise Integration. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo, X., Zhang, L., Xiong, D., Ran, L., Wang, Y., 2015. Selection of Basic Measurements on Head Segment of Male Pilots for 3-D Anthropometry, in: Long, S., Dhillon, B.S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Methane Hunting Tool Could Boost The Search For Extraterrestrials [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Transportation Infrastructure: Flexibility in Federal-Aid Funding Essential to Highway Program Restructuring (No. T-RCED-91-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moose, A.M., 2013. The Relationship of Distributed Expertise and Shared Leadership in New Product Development Teams: A Comparative Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2006. Replacing Yellow Buses, With Green in Mind. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crutzen, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Crutzen, 2004; Jernvall and Fortelius, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jernvall and Fortelius, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (van der Hilst et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanics
AbbreviationJ. Biomech.
ISSN (print)0021-9290
Biomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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