How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lippard, S.J., 2007. Obituary: Frank Albert Cotton (1930-2007). Nature 446, 626.
A journal article with 2 authors
Irion, U., St Johnston, D., 2007. bicoid RNA localization requires specific binding of an endosomal sorting complex. Nature 445, 554–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
von Caemmerer, S., Quick, W.P., Furbank, R.T., 2012. The development of C₄rice: current progress and future challenges. Science 336, 1671–1672.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hafez, I.H., Berber, M.R., Fujigaya, T., Nakashima, N., 2014. Enhancement of platinum mass activity on the surface of polymer-wrapped carbon nanotube-based fuel cell electrocatalysts. Sci. Rep. 4, 6295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu, L.-Y., Wang, W., 2017. Microfluidics for Advanced Functional Polymeric Materials. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Jiménez Catalán, R.M. (Ed.), 2014. Lexical Availability in English and Spanish as a Second Language, Educational Linguistics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Deutsch, H., 2014. Microscopes and Endoscopes, in: Phillips, F., Lieberman, I., Polly, D. (Eds.), Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 37–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Watch Two Black Mambas Get Into A Twisting Fight For Dominance [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. The Problems of Management Information Systems: Why They Fail (No. 091001). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds, P.R., 2004. Midkine (MK) Regulates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling During Hypoxia (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Landler, M., 2017. Trump Expected to Back NATO Mutual Aid Pledge. New York Times A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lippard, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Irion and St Johnston, 2007; Lippard, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Irion and St Johnston, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hafez et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanics
AbbreviationJ. Biomech.
ISSN (print)0021-9290
Biomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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