How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gisin, N., 2006. Physics. New additions to the Schrödinger cat family. Science 312, 63–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratnieks, F.L.W., Wenseleers, T., 2005. Evolution. Policing insect societies. Science 307, 54–56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green, D.R., Galluzzi, L., Kroemer, G., 2011. Mitochondria and the autophagy-inflammation-cell death axis in organismal aging. Science 333, 1109–1112.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qian, G.-R., Lyakhov, A.O., Zhu, Q., Oganov, A.R., Dong, X., 2014. Novel hydrogen hydrate structures under pressure. Sci. Rep. 4, 5606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk, M., Broersen, J., Schurink, G., 2014. Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Navratil, G. (Ed.), 2009. Research Trends in Geographic Information Science, Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Renso, C., Puntoni, S., Frentzos, E., Mazzoni, A., Moelans, B., Pelekis, N., Pini, F., 2008. Wireless Network Data Sources: Tracking and Synthesizing Trajectories, in: Giannotti, F., Pedreschi, D. (Eds.), Mobility, Data Mining and Privacy: Geographic Knowledge Discovery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Young Girl Has Tapeworm Cyst Half The Size Of Her Brain Removed [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Science and Engineering Manpower Forecasting: Its Use in Policymaking (No. PSAD-79-75). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, J., 2017. Recognizing the “Muchness” in Art Education: a Historical Analysis of Developments in Education and Art Education Since the 1950s and the Finding Your Muchness Photoshop Curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ratliff, B., 2016. Imagine Beckett as a Cranky Songwriter. New York Times AR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gisin, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gisin, 2006; Ratnieks and Wenseleers, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ratnieks and Wenseleers, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Qian et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanics
AbbreviationJ. Biomech.
ISSN (print)0021-9290
Biomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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