How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E., 2004. Fast Track: charting the course of your postdoc. Nature 431, 1126–1127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartmann, D.L., Hendon, H.H., 2007. Atmospheric science. Resolving an atmospheric enigma. Science 318, 1731–1732.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhard, C.T., Planavsky, N.J., Lyons, T.W., 2013. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies. Nature 497, 100–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jetz, W., Carbone, C., Fulford, J., Brown, J.H., 2004. The scaling of animal space use. Science 306, 266–268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius, V., Julius, K., Nikulin, M.S., 2011. Non-parametric Tests for Complete Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Swaroop, M., Krishnaswami, S. (Eds.), 2016. Academic Global Surgery, Success in Academic Surgery. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Takei, H., Bhattacharjee, M.B., 2014. Pituitary Gland, in: Zhai, Q. “jim” (Ed.), Frozen Section Library: Endocrine Organs, Frozen Section Library. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 207–231.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Nobel Prize In Chemistry Awarded For Work On Natural DNA Repair [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. The Johnstown Area Flood of 1977: A Case Study for the Future (No. CED-78-114). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morton, W.G., 2015. Isolating mycorrhizal fungi from Spiranthes vernalis for subsequent in vitro seed germination (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Court Upholds Arizona Limits Imposed on Insanity Defense. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hartmann and Hendon, 2007; Russo, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hartmann and Hendon, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Jetz et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanics
AbbreviationJ. Biomech.
ISSN (print)0021-9290
Biomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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