How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wolinetz, C.D., 2012. Implementing the new U.S. dual-use policy. Science 336, 1525–1527.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bada, J.L., Lazcano, A., 2002. Origin of life. Some like it hot, but not the first biomolecules. Science 296, 1982–1983.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sims, D.W., Andrews, P.L., Young, J.Z., 2000. Stomach rinsing in rays. Nature 404, 566.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prystowsky, M., Feeney, K., Kawachi, N., Montagna, C., Willmott, M., Wasson, C., Antkowiak, M., Loudig, O., Parish, J., 2013. Inhibition of Plk1 and Cyclin B1 expression results in panobinostat-induced G₂ delay and mitotic defects. Sci. Rep. 3, 2640.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, J.D., 2016. Soil Water Measurement. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ma, C., Huang, Y. (Eds.), 2016. Translational Research in Pain and Itch, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Nogueira, S., Ruichek, Y., Gechter, F., Koukam, A., Charpillet, F., 2007. An Artificial-Vision Based Environment Perception System, in: Abut, H., Hansen, J.H.L., Takeda, K. (Eds.), Advances for In-Vehicle and Mobile Systems: Challenges for International Standards. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Giraffes Aren’t Dangerous – But They Will Soon Be Endangered [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Student Loans: Characteristics of Students and Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (No. HEHS-98-90). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, A.O., 2009. Observing action research processes in practice (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mackay, I.P., 1935. Dogwood at Valley Forge. New York Times BOOKS ART22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wolinetz, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bada and Lazcano, 2002; Wolinetz, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bada and Lazcano, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Prystowsky et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanics
AbbreviationJ. Biomech.
ISSN (print)0021-9290
Biomedical Engineering
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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