How to format your references using the Journal of Biological Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biological Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montell, Denise J. 2008. “Morphogenetic Cell Movements: Diversity from Modular Mechanical Properties.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5907): 1502–1505.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barnes, William, and Roy Sambles. 2004. “Physics. Only Skin Deep.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5685): 785–786.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuthill, P. G., J. D. Monnier, and W. C. Danchi. 2001. “A Dusty Torus around the Luminous Young Star LkH Alpha101.” Nature 409 (6823): 1012–1014.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hardy, Jonathan, Kevin P. Francis, Monica DeBoer, Pauline Chu, Karine Gibbs, and Christopher H. Contag. 2004. “Extracellular Replication of Listeria Monocytogenes in the Murine Gall Bladder.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5659): 851–853.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monks, Robert A. G., Alexandra Reed Lajoux, and Dean LeBaron. 2010. Corporate Valuation for Portfolio Investment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Perna, Cira, and Marilena Sibillo, eds. 2008. Mathematical and Statistical Methods in Insurance and Finance. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Getz, Jayce, and Mark Goresky. 2012. “Generalities on Hilbert Modular Forms and Varieties.” In Hilbert Modular Forms with Coefficients in Intersection Homology and Quadratic Base Change, edited by Mark Goresky, 57–89. Basel: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biological Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Fatal Error: Why We Don’t Fully Trust Technology.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Learning Disabilities: The Link to Delinquency Should Be Determined, but Schools Should Do More Now. GGD-76-97. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beverley, Dawnet. 2014. “Golf as a Tool for Executive Leadership Development.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2003. “City College Senior Seeks Yet Another Record.” New York Times, February 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montell 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Montell 2008; Barnes and Sambles 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barnes and Sambles 2004)
  • Three authors: (Tuthill, Monnier, and Danchi 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hardy et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biological Education
AbbreviationJ. Biol. Educ.
ISSN (print)0021-9266
ISSN (online)2157-6009
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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