How to format your references using the Journal of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arnold, C. (2014). The stressed-out postdoc. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6196), 594.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kohli, R. M., & Zhang, Y. (2013). TET enzymes, TDG and the dynamics of DNA demethylation. Nature, 502(7472), 472–479.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mariani, F. V., Ahn, C. P., & Martin, G. R. (2008). Genetic evidence that FGFs have an instructive role in limb proximal-distal patterning. Nature, 453(7193), 401–405.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, X., Zhao, X., Gao, P., & Wu, M. (2013). c-Myc modulates microRNA processing via the transcriptional regulation of Drosha. Scientific Reports, 3, 1942.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ness, L. (2006). Securing Utility and Energy Infrastructures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rossum, J. van. (2015). Extending SSIS with .NET Scripting: A Toolkit for SQL Server Integration Services (R. Baccaro, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmadi, N., Baroiller, J.-F., D’Cotta Carreras, H., & Morillon, R. (2016). Adaptation to Salinity. In E. Torquebiau (Ed.), Climate Change and Agriculture Worldwide (pp. 45–58). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 15). Welcome To The Family, Pluto. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Proposed Revision to Armed Services Procurement Regulation for Cost Principles on Independent Research and Development Costs (B-164912). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Park, A. (2009). Borderland beyond: Korean migrants and the creation of a modern state boundary between Korea and Russia, 1860-1937 [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, November 5). Rebooting Pensions. New York Times, F14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Arnold, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Arnold, 2014; Kohli & Zhang, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kohli & Zhang, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Mariani et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biogeography
AbbreviationJ. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)0305-0270
ISSN (online)1365-2699
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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