How to format your references using the Journal of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ivins, E. R. (2009). Ocean science. Ice sheet stability and sea level. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929), 888–889.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ihinger, P. D., & Zink, S. I. (2000). Determination of relative growth rates of natural quartz crystals. Nature, 404(6780), 865–869.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lou, X., Scheuss, V., & Schneggenburger, R. (2005). Allosteric modulation of the presynaptic Ca2+ sensor for vesicle fusion. Nature, 435(7041), 497–501.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Watkins, E. R., Grad, Y. H., Gupta, S., & Buckee, C. O. (2014). Contrasting within- and between-host immune selection shapes Neisseria Opa repertoires. Scientific Reports, 4, 6554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misra, D. K. (2006). Practical Electromagnetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Blanche, P.-A. (Ed.). (2016). Photorefractive Organic Materials and Applications (Vol. 240). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Takuma, T., & Techaumnat, B. (2010). Electric Field in High-Voltage Equipment. In B. Techaumnat (Ed.), Electric Fields in Composite Dielectrics and their Applications (pp. 71–86). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, May 29). People With Creative Personalities Really Do See The World Differently. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). ADP Procurement: Army Accounting System Modernization (IMTEC-88-14BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simsic, G. (2012). Revisiting Addiction Using Depth Psychology: The Myth of Exodus as a Blueprint for Recovery [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stevenson, A., & Goldstein, M. (2017, September 8). Man of Many Principles. New York Times, BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ivins, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ihinger & Zink, 2000; Ivins, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ihinger & Zink, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Lou et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Watkins et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biogeography
AbbreviationJ. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)0305-0270
ISSN (online)1365-2699
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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