How to format your references using the Journal of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirth, G. (2014). Earth science: Missing link in mantle dynamics. Nature, 507(7490), 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski, P. G., & Isozaki, Y. (2008). Geology. The story of O2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5901), 540–542.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neil, S. J. D., Zang, T., & Bieniasz, P. D. (2008). Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu. Nature, 451(7177), 425–430.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, S.-W., Lin, J.-W., Wang, W.-T., Wu, C.-W., Liou, T.-H., & Lin, H.-W. (2014). Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for developing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study. Scientific Reports, 4, 4183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunt-Ahmed, K. (2013). Contemporary Islamic Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Feng, R., Lee, W.-S., & Sato, Y. (Eds.). (2014). Computer Mathematics: 9th Asian Symposium (ASCM2009), Fukuoka, December 2009, 10th Asian Symposium (ASCM2012), Beijing, October 2012, Contributed Papers and Invited Talks. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ogisu, T. (2016). Pedagogy in Cambodian Schools. In Y. Kitamura, D. B. Edwards, C. Sitha, & J. H. Williams (Eds.), The Political Economy of Schooling in Cambodia: Issues of Quality and Equity (pp. 57–75). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biogeography.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2014, October 21). Jewelry That Harvests Energy From Your Veins. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Government-Wide Guidelines and Management Assistance Center Needed To Improve ADP Systems Development (AFMD-81-20). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutherland, C. E. (2013). Positive deviance during organization change: Researchers’ social construction of expanded university goals [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, January 22). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: 10 Tons Of Cold Ones. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hirth, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Falkowski & Isozaki, 2008; Hirth, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falkowski & Isozaki, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Neil et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Huang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biogeography
AbbreviationJ. Biogeogr.
ISSN (print)0305-0270
ISSN (online)1365-2699
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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