How to format your references using the Journal of Avian Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Avian Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharon, M. 2013. Biochemistry. Structural MS pulls its weight. – Science 340: 1059–1060.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tahir, M. and Schwingenschlögl, U. 2013. Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene. – Sci. Rep. 3: 1075.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xia, K., Rosakis, A. J. and Kanamori, H. 2004. Laboratory earthquakes: the sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear rupture transition. – Science 303: 1859–1861.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kang, P. J., Sanson, A., Lee, B. and Park, H. O. 2001. A GDP/GTP exchange factor involved in linking a spatial landmark to cell polarity. – Science 292: 1376–1378.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fan, J. 2010. Multiscale Analysis of Deformation and Failure of Materials. – John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Benaloh, J.Ed. 2014. Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2014: The Cryptographer’s Track at the RSA Conference 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 25-28, 2014. Proceedings. – Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Niu, B., Li, X., Zhu, X., Li, X. and Li, H. 2015. Are You Really My Friend? Exactly Spatiotemporal Matching Scheme in Privacy-Aware Mobile Social Networks. – In: Tian, J. et al. (eds), International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 10th International ICST Conference, SecureComm 2014, Beijing, China, September 24-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer International Publishing, pp. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Avian Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017. Not A Lizard Nor A Dinosaur, Tuatara Is The Sole Survivor Of A Once-Widespread Reptile Group. – IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Department of Education: Status of Actions to Improve the Management of Student Financial Aid.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mier, L. M. 2012. Monitoring Electron Transfer Reactions using Ultrafast UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy. – Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein, J. and Spielberg, B. 2017. Medicaid Work Rules Won’t Work. – New York Times. : A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sharon 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Tahir and Schwingenschlögl 2013, Sharon 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tahir and Schwingenschlögl 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Avian Biology
AbbreviationJ. Avian Biol.
ISSN (print)0908-8857
ISSN (online)1600-048X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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