How to format your references using the Journal of Avian Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Avian Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, G. H. 2015. Evolution: An avian explosion. - Nature 526: 516–517.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahlund, M. and Andersson, M. 2001. Female ducks can double their reproduction. - Nature 414: 600–601.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré, D. and Boucher, O. 2002. A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system. - Nature 419: 215–223.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zenkin, N., Naryshkina, T., Kuznedelov, K. and Severinov, K. 2006. The mechanism of DNA replication primer synthesis by RNA polymerase. - Nature 439: 617–620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBattista, M. 2010. Novel Characters. - Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
2014. Using Data to Improve Higher Education: Research, Policy and Practice (ME Menon, DG Terkla, and P Gibbs, Eds.). - SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Kotulski, Z. and Szczepiński, W. 2010. Functions of Independent Random Variables. - In: Szczepinski, W. (ed), Error Analysis with Applications in Engineering. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, pp. 91–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Avian Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. How To Light A Candle With Smoke. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998. DOD, GSA, and NASA: Federal Acquisition Regulation--Reform of Affirmative Action in Federal Procurement.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perez, V. 2010. Overrepresentation of American Indian youth in foster care: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. 2012. Kick Up Those Heels. - New York Times: C37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ahlund and Andersson 2001, Thomas 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahlund and Andersson 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zenkin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Avian Biology
AbbreviationJ. Avian Biol.
ISSN (print)0908-8857
ISSN (online)1600-048X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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