How to format your references using the Journal of Avian Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Avian Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hartmann, W. K. 2000. The paradigm and the pendulum. – Nature 404: 817.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sarkies, P. and Miska, E. A. 2013. Molecular biology. Is there social RNA? – Science 341: 467–468.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naeem, S., Hahn, D. R. and Schuurman, G. 2000. Producer-decomposer co-dependency influences biodiversity effects. – Nature 403: 762–764.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Chou, C. W., de Riedmatten, H., Felinto, D., Polyakov, S. V., van Enk, S. J. and Kimble, H. J. 2005. Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles. – Nature 438: 828–832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindl, T. and Steubing, R. 2013. Atlas of Living Cell Cultures. – Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Turgut, M., Haddad, F. S. and de Divitiis, O.Eds. 2016. Neurobrucellosis: Clinical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Features. – Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonacchi, S., Genovese, D., Juris, R., Marzocchi, E., Montalti, M., Prodi, L., Rampazzo, E. and Zaccheroni, N. 2010. Energy Transfer in Silica Nanoparticles: An Essential Tool for the Amplification of the Fluorescence Signal. – In: Geddes, C. D. (ed), Reviews in Fluorescence 2008, Reviews in Fluorescence. Springer, pp. 119–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Avian Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2016. Biologists Lose Hard-Fought Ground In Race To Save Bats As White-Nose Syndrome Spreads West. – IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimpeno, P. D. 2010. Consumed: Simple Choices, Complex Problems. – Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Surico, J. 2016. A Jail Officer Is Fatally Shot In Brooklyn. – New York Times. : A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hartmann 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hartmann 2000, Sarkies and Miska 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sarkies and Miska 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chou et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Avian Biology
AbbreviationJ. Avian Biol.
ISSN (print)0908-8857
ISSN (online)1600-048X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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