How to format your references using the Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, “Career prospects in Europe,” Nature 419(6906), 3 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
S. C. Wallace and X. Wang, “Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America,” Nature 431(7008), 556–559 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Chadderton, T. W. Margrie, and M. Häusser, “Integration of quanta in cerebellar granule cells during sensory processing,” Nature 428(6985), 856–860 (2004).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. G. Anderson et al., “Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections,” Science 301(5629), 105–107 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Molimard, Experimental Mechanics of Solids and Structures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016).
An edited book
J. Dethloff et al., Eds., Logistics Management: Products, Actors, Technology - Proceedings of the German Academic Association for Business Research, Bremen, 2013, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015).
A chapter in an edited book
V. Lefort et al., “Simultaneous Optimization of Weights and Structure of an RBF Neural Network,” in Artificial Evolution: 7th International Conference, Evolution Artificielle, EA 2005, Lille, France, October 26-28, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, E.-G. Talbi et al., Eds., pp. 49–60, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems.

Blog post
B. Taub, “A New AI Called Nightmare Machine Has Just Opened Up A Portal To Hell,” IFLScience, 10 November 2016, <; (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Reducing Congestion: Congestion Pricing Has Promise for Improving Use of Transportation Infrastructure,” GAO-03-735T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2003).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. R. Fortenbery, “Regulation of Natural Killer Cells: SHIP-1, 2B4, and Immunomodulation by Lenalidomide,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, “Moscow: Art For Sale,” in New York Times, p. E2 (2004).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
AbbreviationJ. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst.
ISSN (print)2329-4124
ISSN (online)2329-4221
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Control and Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Other styles