How to format your references using the Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Pennisi, “Biomaterials. Crystalline eyes of chitons inspire materials scientists,” Science 350(6263), 899 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
R. B. Best and G. Hummer, “Comment on ‘Force-clamp spectroscopy monitors the folding trajectory of a single protein,’” Science 308(5721), 498; author reply 498 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Takano, T. Endo, and T. Yoshihisa, “tRNA actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytosol in yeast,” Science 309(5731), 140–142 (2005).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Strand et al., “Chloroplast to nucleus communication triggered by accumulation of Mg-protoporphyrinIX,” Nature 421(6918), 79–83 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Kassapoglou, Design and Analysis of Composite Structures, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK (2013).
An edited book
E. Corchado et al., Eds., Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems: 4th International Conference, HAIS 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009).
A chapter in an edited book
D. Jia et al., “Study on the Mechanism of Apoptosis in the Swine Small Intestine Epithelium Treated by Heat Stress,” in Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 2, Y. Wu, Ed., pp. 25–31, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, “How Does A Computer Know Where You’re Looking?,” IFLScience, 31 August 2016, <; (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Status Report: ‘National Materials and Minerals Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980,’” EMD-81-124, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1981).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. B. Mahler, “Defining career success in the 21st century: A narrative study of intentional work role transitions,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “U.S. Team Needs A Bradley or Two,” in New York Times, p. D1 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
AbbreviationJ. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst.
ISSN (print)2329-4124
ISSN (online)2329-4221
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Control and Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Other styles