How to format your references using the Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Gershon, “Toxicogenomics gains impetus,” Nature 415(6869), 4–5 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
H. S. Crudgington and M. T. Siva-Jothy, “Genital damage, kicking and early death,” Nature 407(6806), 855–856 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
J. W. Gregg, C. G. Jones, and T. E. Dawson, “Urbanization effects on tree growth in the vicinity of New York City,” Nature 424(6945), 183–187 (2003).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. O. Blunt et al., “Random tiling and topological defects in a two-dimensional molecular network,” Science 322(5904), 1077–1081 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Y. Yan, Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore (2012).
An edited book
K. Miesenberger et al., Eds., Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 13th International Conference, ICCHP 2012, Linz, Austria, July 11-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
D. Upton and P. Upton, “Different Wound Type,” in Psychology of Wounds and Wound Care in Clinical Practice, P. Upton, Ed., pp. 113–142, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems.

Blog post
J. Fang, “130-Million-Year-Old Fossil from China is the Oldest Relative of Today’s Birds,” IFLScience, 6 May 2015 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “The Education of the New Public Executive,” 095393, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1978).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. C. Davenport, “Behavior and ecology of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in oxbow lakes of the Manú Biosphere Reserve, Perú,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “It’s Still Audrey’s College, Even If Her Name Is Gone,” in New York Times, p. 146 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
AbbreviationJ. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst.
ISSN (print)2329-4124
ISSN (online)2329-4221
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Control and Systems Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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