How to format your references using the The Irish Journal of Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Irish Journal of Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Falkowski, P. G. (2006). Evolution. Tracing oxygen’s imprint on earth’s metabolic evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5768), 1724–1725.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kessler, A., & Baldwin, I. T. (2001). Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5511), 2141–2144.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allesina, S., Alonso, D., & Pascual, M. (2008). A general model for food web structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5876), 658–661.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, H., Yang, B., Pomerantz, R. J., Zhang, C., Arunachalam, S. C., & Gao, L. (2003). The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA. Nature, 424(6944), 94–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halpin, D. W., & Senior, B. A. (2009). Financial Management and Accounting Fundamentals for Construction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Warren, N., & Manderson, L. (Eds.). (2013). Reframing Disability and Quality of Life: A Global Perspective (Vol. 52). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hardt, N., & Kuttenberger, J. (2010). Epidemiological Aspects of Craniofacial/Skull Base Fractures. In N. Hardt & J. Kuttenberger (Eds.), Craniofacial Trauma: Diagnosis and Management (pp. 63–76). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Irish Journal of Psychology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, January 11). Photons Couldn’t Easily Escape Ancient Galaxies. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Grumman Corporation Computer Software Development Costs and Licensing Fees Paid by the Government (PSAD-79-69). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boukes, J. (2012). An exploration of online spam prevention through geolocational filters [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, September 22). Theater; The Terrain Where Generations Meet. New York Times, AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Falkowski, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Falkowski, 2006; Kessler & Baldwin, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kessler & Baldwin, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Allesina et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Irish Journal of Psychology
AbbreviationIr. J. Psychol.
ISSN (print)0303-3910
ISSN (online)2158-0812
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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