How to format your references using the Journal of Arid Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Arid Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark, P.U., 2012. Climate change. Ice sheets in transition. Science 337, 656–658.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley, L.A., Endler, J.A., 2012. Illusions promote mating success in great bowerbirds. Science 335, 335–338.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen, B., Makley, D.M., Johnston, J.N., 2010. Umpolung reactivity in amide and peptide synthesis. Nature 465, 1027–1032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Germano, G., Lamba, S., Rospo, G., Barault, L., Magrì, A., Maione, F., Russo, M., Crisafulli, G., Bartolini, A., Lerda, G., Siravegna, G., Mussolin, B., Frapolli, R., Montone, M., Morano, F., de Braud, F., Amirouchene-Angelozzi, N., Marsoni, S., D’Incalci, M., Orlandi, A., Giraudo, E., Sartore-Bianchi, A., Siena, S., Pietrantonio, F., Di Nicolantonio, F., Bardelli, A., 2017. Inactivation of DNA repair triggers neoantigen generation and impairs tumour growth. Nature 552, 116–120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merrills, J., Fisher, J., 2008. Pharmacy Law and Practice. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Fratzl, P. (Ed.), 2008. Collagen: Structure and Mechanics. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Urbinati, A., Brambatti, M., 2015. Intracranial Bleeding, in: Capucci, A. (Ed.), Clinical Cases in Cardiology: A Guide to Learning and Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Arid Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Can Magnetically Levitating Trains Run At 3,000km/h? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Air Traffic Control: The Interim Support Plan Does Not Meet FAA’s Needs (No. RCED-90-213). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaker, G., 2008. Off the track: The full-time nontenure -track faculty experience in English (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Markoff, J., 2017. Defying Roadblocks, Silicon Valley Tests a Flying Car. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clark, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Clark, 2012; Kelley and Endler, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelley and Endler, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Germano et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Arid Environments
AbbreviationJ. Arid Environ.
ISSN (print)0140-1963
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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