How to format your references using the Journal of Arid Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Arid Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hong, W., 2013. Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Assembly of a neural circuit. Science 342, 1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tokuriki, N., Tawfik, D.S., 2009. Chaperonin overexpression promotes genetic variation and enzyme evolution. Nature 459, 668–673.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fan, Y., Li, H., Miguez-Macho, G., 2013. Global patterns of groundwater table depth. Science 339, 940–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, Y., Sugimoto, J.D., Halloran, M.E., Basta, N.E., Chao, D.L., Matrajt, L., Potter, G., Kenah, E., Longini, I.M., Jr, 2009. The transmissibility and control of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Science 326, 729–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondoz, A.M., 2006. Digital Speech. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Machin, A., Stehr, N. (Eds.), 2016. Understanding Inequality: Social Costs and Benefits, zu / schriften der Zeppelin Universität. zwischen Wirtschaft, Kultur und Politik. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
González-García, J., 2011. Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis of Materials, in: Ashokkumar, M. (Ed.), Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 107–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Arid Environments.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. World’s First Robot Lawyer Helps 160,000 People Void Their Parking Tickets [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Special Education: More Flexible Spending Requirement Could Mitigate Unintended Consequences While Protecting Services (No. GAO-16-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, S.L., 2008. Ninth grade transition: Best practices for a successful transition to high school (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. For Musial, A Birthday And A Medal. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hong, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hong, 2013; Tokuriki and Tawfik, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tokuriki and Tawfik, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Arid Environments
AbbreviationJ. Arid Environ.
ISSN (print)0140-1963
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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