How to format your references using the Journal of Arid Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Arid Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wheeler, A.R., 2008. Chemistry. Putting electrowetting to work. Science 322, 539–540.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymo, M.E., Huybers, P., 2008. Unlocking the mysteries of the ice ages. Nature 451, 284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins, P.G., Arnold, M.S., Avouris, P., 2001. Engineering carbon nanotubes and nanotube circuits using electrical breakdown. Science 292, 706–709.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pramanik, S., Pingguan-Murphy, B., Cho, J., Abu Osman, N.A., 2014. Design and development of potential tissue engineering scaffolds from structurally different longitudinal parts of a bovine-femur. Sci. Rep. 4, 5843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Epperlein, P.W., 2013. Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Kazakov, D., Smadja, G. (Eds.), 2005. Particle Physics and Cosmology: The Interface: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Particle Physics and Cosmology: The Interface Cargèse, France 4–16 August 2003, NATO Science Series, Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Stephens, F.O., Aigner, K.R., 2016. Signs of Cancer: Local and General, in: Aigner, K.R. (Ed.), Basics of Oncology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Arid Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. What Your Brain Structure Says About Your Personality [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Space Acquisitions: Committing Prematurely to the Transformational Satellite Program Elevates Risks for Poor Cost, Schedule, and Performance Outcomes (No. GAO-04-71R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, S., 2017. Searching for Identity and Truth: How Letter Writing Creates Identity in Victorian Literature (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2014. An Alluring Summer Song, Echoed Through Eight World Cups. New York Times SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wheeler, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Raymo and Huybers, 2008; Wheeler, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raymo and Huybers, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Pramanik et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Arid Environments
AbbreviationJ. Arid Environ.
ISSN (print)0140-1963
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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