How to format your references using the Journal of Arid Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Arid Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hillmyer, M.A., 2007. Materials science. Micelles made to order. Science 317, 604–605.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao, S., Hegde, R.S., 2014. Cell Biology. Local synthesis and disposal. Science 346, 701–702.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailor, M.H., Sun, X., Al-Hashimi, H.M., 2010. Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science 327, 202–206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, D.-S., Nioche, P., Hamberg, M., Raman, C.S., 2008. Structural insights into the evolutionary paths of oxylipin biosynthetic enzymes. Nature 455, 363–368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pohl, J., 2011. Building Science. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Zimmer, J. (Ed.), 2010. Natural Killer Cells: At the Forefront of Modern Immunology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, H., Hao, F., Zhu, C., Rodrigues, J.J.P.C., Yang, L.T., 2012. An Android Multimedia Framework Based on Gstreamer, in: Rodrigues, J.J.P.C., Zhou, L., Chen, M., Kailas, A. (Eds.), Green Communications and Networking: First International Conference, GreeNets 2011, Colmar, France, October 5-7, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Arid Environments.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Martian Water Might Vary From Region To Region [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Spanish Version) (No. GAO-06-185). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vento, K.A., 2017. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Subjective Well-Being of Collegiate Athletes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Digital Security Provider Raises $100 Million to Tackle Booming Market. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hillmyer, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hillmyer, 2007; Shao and Hegde, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shao and Hegde, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Arid Environments
AbbreviationJ. Arid Environ.
ISSN (print)0140-1963
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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