How to format your references using the Journal of Arid Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Arid Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, J.-S., 2015. Biomolecules. The dark side of sunlight and melanoma. Science 347, 824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karpowich, N.K., Wang, D.-N., 2008. Structural biology. Symmetric transporters for asymmetric transport. Science 321, 781–782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ji, M., Odelius, M., Gaffney, K.J., 2010. Large angular jump mechanism observed for hydrogen bond exchange in aqueous perchlorate solution. Science 328, 1003–1005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Suzuki, T., Hasan, Z., Funahashi, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Fujishiro, Y., Awano, M., 2009. Impact of anode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cells. Science 325, 852–855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zwecher, M.J., 2010. Retirement Portfolios. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hirsch, F., 2011. Peacocks and Associated Martingales, with Explicit Constructions, B&SS — Bocconi & Springer Series. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Jonker, C.M., Treur, J., 2013. A Formal Approach to Building Compositional Agent-Based Simulations, in: Edmonds, B., Meyer, R. (Eds.), Simulating Social Complexity: A Handbook, Understanding Complex Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Arid Environments.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Archaeologists Map Underwater Mesolithic Stone Age Settlement [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-05-28R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulsifer, J.E., 2012. Learning from the Uighurs: Correcting Inadequate Due Process in Terrorist Financing Sanction Regimes (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Sharapova Rising Ladder Toward Major Appearances. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Karpowich and Wang, 2008; Taylor, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karpowich and Wang, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Suzuki et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Arid Environments
AbbreviationJ. Arid Environ.
ISSN (print)0140-1963
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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