How to format your references using the Journal of Arid Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Arid Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd, I.L., 2012. Ecology. The art of ecological modeling. Science 337, 306–307.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medzhitov, R., Janeway, C.A., Jr, 2002. Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system. Science 296, 298–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shi, Y., Evans, J.E., Rock, K.L., 2003. Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells. Nature 425, 516–521.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, X., He, Y., Wang, Y., Dong, J., Li, H., 2014. Dewetting properties of metallic liquid film on nanopillared graphene. Sci. Rep. 4, 3938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells, A.R., Chiang, K., 2017. Monetizing Your Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Amoretti, M.C., Vassallo, N. (Eds.), 2016. Meta-Philosophical Reflection on Feminist Philosophies of Science, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Griesbach, U., Malkowsky, I.M., Waldvogel, S.R., 2010. Green Electroorganic Synthesis Using BDD Electrodes, in: Comninellis, C., Chen, G. (Eds.), Electrochemistry for the Environment. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 125–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Arid Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Superhydrophobic Material Developed That Makes Water Bounce Like A Ball [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Title 6--NAD Electronic Signature (No. AIMD-94-102R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kovacev, R.J., 2008. Encouraging employee entrepreneurial spirit: A phenomenological case study of a large technology enterprise (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S., 2017. Cosby as a Lens on the Gender Beat. New York Times A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyd, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Boyd, 2012; Medzhitov and Janeway, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medzhitov and Janeway, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Arid Environments
AbbreviationJ. Arid Environ.
ISSN (print)0140-1963
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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