How to format your references using the Journal of Arid Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Arid Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edelman, G.M., 2007. Learning in and from brain-based devices. Science 318, 1103–1105.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burt, D., Pourquie, O., 2003. Genetics. Chicken genome--science nuggets to come soon. Science 300, 1669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bressan, M., Liu, G., Mikawa, T., 2013. Early mesodermal cues assign avian cardiac pacemaker fate potential in a tertiary heart field. Science 340, 744–748.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Güdel, M., Briggs, K.R., Montmerle, T., Audard, M., Rebull, L., Skinner, S.L., 2008. Million-degree plasma pervading the extended Orion Nebula. Science 319, 309–312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald, I.W., 2010. Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Sigalotti, L.D.G., Klapp, J., Sira, E. (Eds.), 2014. Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Physics, Engineering and the Environment, Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Boixadera, J., Antúnez, M., Poch, R.M., 2008. Soil Evolution Along a Toposequence on Glacial and Periglacial Materials in the Pyrenees Range, in: Kapur, S., Mermut, A., Stoops, G. (Eds.), New Trends in Soil Micromorphology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Arid Environments.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Scientists May Have Discovered The Neural Source Of Consciousness [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Leo Herbert, GAO, 1956-1974 (No. OP-7-OH). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, M.S., 2017. Integrating Emergency Medical Services Into the Patient-Centered Medical Home (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J., 2016. The Deflategate Scientists Unlock Their Lab. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edelman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Burt and Pourquie, 2003; Edelman, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burt and Pourquie, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Güdel et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Arid Environments
AbbreviationJ. Arid Environ.
ISSN (print)0140-1963
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Earth-Surface Processes

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