How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Phycology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Phycology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachs J (2009) Recession Watch: Boost the developing world. Nature 457:958
A journal article with 2 authors
Eaton DW, Frederiksen A (2007) Seismic evidence for convection-driven motion of the North American plate. Nature 446:428–431
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo Z-X, Ji Q, Yuan C-X (2007) Convergent dental adaptations in pseudo-tribosphenic and tribosphenic mammals. Nature 450:93–97
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tan CSH, Pasculescu A, Lim WA, et al (2009) Positive selection of tyrosine loss in metazoan evolution. Science 325:1686–1688

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dean JR (2005) Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy: Dean/Plasma. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Buck T, Franke A, Monaghan MJ (eds) (2015) Three-dimensional Echocardiography, Second fully revised edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Yang Z, Chen J (2014) Housing Affordability in Urban China: National Study. In: Chen J (ed) Housing Affordability and Housing Policy in Urban China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 59–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Phycology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Scientists Discover The World’s Largest Sea Sponge. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) School Lunch Program: Buy American Procedures at Schools With Cash or Credit in Lieu of Food. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Canetta SE (2010) Type III Neuregulin1 Signaling in Peripheral Sensory Neurons Affects Thermal Pain Sensation and Hyperalgesia. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J (2016) Ready to Jump In If Needed (Not Likely). New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sachs 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Eaton and Frederiksen 2007; Sachs 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eaton and Frederiksen 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Phycology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Phycol.
ISSN (print)0921-8971
ISSN (online)1573-5176
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

Other styles