How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Phycology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Phycology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hatfull GF (2002) Microbiology. A tail of two specifi-cities. Science 295:2031–2032
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu H, Owen MR (2013) Damped propagation of cell polarization explains distinct PCP phenotypes of epithelial patterning. Sci Rep 3:2528
A journal article with 3 authors
Volpe G, Volpe G, Gigan S (2014) Brownian motion in a speckle light field: tunable anomalous diffusion and selective optical manipulation. Sci Rep 4:3936
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu LC, Tuot DS, Lyons DS, et al (2002) Two-step binding mechanism for T-cell receptor recognition of peptide MHC. Nature 418:552–556

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent O (2010) IP Telephony. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Szende A, Oppe M, Devlin N (eds) (2007) EQ-5D Value Sets: Inventory, Comparative Review and User Guide. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Pelekis N, Theodoridis Y (2014) Moving Object Database Engines. In: Theodoridis Y (ed) Mobility Data Management and Exploration. Springer, New York, NY, pp 101–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Phycology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) New Software Gives You An Animal-Eye View Of The World. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Vocational Education: Status in School Year 1990-91 and Early Signs of Change at Secondary Level. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas-Whitman D (2012) Treading water: Civic engagement efforts in a time of budget crisis at a public university. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2001) Is the Field Getting Too Crowded? New York Times 14NJ7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hatfull 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hatfull 2002; Zhu and Owen 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu and Owen 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Phycology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Phycol.
ISSN (print)0921-8971
ISSN (online)1573-5176
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

Other styles