How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Phycology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Phycology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cole-Hamilton DJ (2010) Chemistry. Janus catalysts direct nanoparticle reactivity. Science 327:41–42
A journal article with 2 authors
Doulatov S, Daley GQ (2013) Development. A stem cell perspective on cellular engineering. Science 342:700–702
A journal article with 3 authors
Finn CA, Sisson TW, Deszcz-Pan M (2001) Aerogeophysical measurements of collapse-prone hydrothermally altered zones at Mount Rainier volcano. Nature 409:600–603
A journal article with 5 or more authors
van Geen A, Zheng Y, Stute M, Ahmed KM (2003) Comment on “Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh” (II). Science 300:584; author reply 584

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon C, Hale R (2012) Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Roose J, Dietz H (eds) (2016) Social Theory and Social Movements: Mutual Inspirations. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
Biasin M (2016) The German Cooperative Banks. An Economic Overview. In: Karafolas S (ed) Credit Cooperative Institutions in European Countries. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 83–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Phycology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Antarctic Rate of Ice Loss Double Previous Estimate. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Analysis of Travel Activities of Certain Regulatory Agency Commissioners During 1971-75. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza M (2010) A Latina’s educational attainment and her observations of foster youth’s educational struggles: A narrative. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LaFORGIA M (2017) Delaying Repairs on Decrepit Tracks. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cole-Hamilton 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cole-Hamilton 2010; Doulatov and Daley 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doulatov and Daley 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (van Geen et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Phycology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Phycol.
ISSN (print)0921-8971
ISSN (online)1573-5176
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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