How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Phycology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Phycology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson K (2015) Structure: Artificial armour. Nature 519:S14-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Bramwell ST, Gingras MJ (2001) Spin ice state in frustrated magnetic pyrochlore materials. Science 294:1495–1501
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann DL, Sutter RW, Aylward RB (2005) A global call for new polio vaccines. Nature 434:699–700
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fayrer-Hosken RA, Grobler D, Van Altena JJ, et al (2000) Immunocontraception of African elephants. Nature 407:149

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parke RD (2013) Future Families. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Rauschenbach T (ed) (2016) Modeling, Control and Optimization of Water Systems: Systems Engineering Methods for Control and Decision Making Tasks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Pudenz KL (2015) Quantum Computing Meets the Real World. In: Calude CS, Dinneen MJ (eds) Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 14th International Conference, UCNC 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, August 30 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 66–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Phycology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Science Of Hangovers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Hazardous Materials: Federal Training for First Responders to Highway and Railroad Incidents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Usborne EL (2012) Sediment and phosphorus dynamics behind weirs in agricultural drainage ditches. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J, Blinder A, Najar N (2017) Drinks at a Bar, Ethnic Insults, Then Gunshots. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanderson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bramwell and Gingras 2001; Sanderson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bramwell and Gingras 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Fayrer-Hosken et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Phycology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Phycol.
ISSN (print)0921-8971
ISSN (online)1573-5176
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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