How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Phycology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Phycology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeFelipe J (2010) From the connectome to the synaptome: an epic love story. Science 330:1198–1201
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu-Baer F, Baer R (2001) Effect of DNA damage on a BRCA1 complex. Nature 414:36
A journal article with 3 authors
Marchevsky M, Higgins MJ, Bhattacharya S (2001) Two coexisting vortex phases in the peak effect regime in a superconductor. Nature 409:591–594
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chen X, Liu X, Jia X, et al (2013) Network characteristic analysis of ADR-related proteins and identification of ADR-ADR associations. Sci Rep 3:1744

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent O, Petit J-P, Gurle D (2005) IP Telephony. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Epstein L, Ferragina P (eds) (2012) Algorithms – ESA 2012: 20th Annual European Symposium, Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 10-12, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kang JX (2008) Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio is Important for Health. In: Meester FD, Watson RR (eds) Wild-Type Food in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: The Columbus Concept. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 35–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Phycology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) First Colour Images Of Ceres Revealed As Dawn Approaches. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Time Issues Affecting the Global Positioning System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marcheschi RL (2010) Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding individuals with epilepsy by marriage and family therapists and social workers. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Genzlinger N, Hale M, Lyons M, Brantley B (2017) Vacation Selections For Trump. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeFelipe 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Wu-Baer and Baer 2001; DeFelipe 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wu-Baer and Baer 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Phycology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Phycol.
ISSN (print)0921-8971
ISSN (online)1573-5176
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

Other styles