How to format your references using the CJC Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CJC Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott, European space panel picks new priorities, Nature. 407 (2000) 277.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Bainer, V. Weaver, Cell biology. Strength under tension, Science. 341 (2013) 965–966.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Asaadi, N.M. Ribe, F. Sobouti, Inferring nonlinear mantle rheology from the shape of the Hawaiian swell, Nature. 473 (2011) 501–504.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Zhou, I. Wertz, K. O’Rourke, M. Ultsch, S. Seshagiri, M. Eby, W. Xiao, V.M. Dixit, Bcl10 activates the NF-kappaB pathway through ubiquitination of NEMO, Nature. 427 (2004) 167–171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Allan, N. Bragg, 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
R.W. Aye, J. Hunter, eds., Fundoplication Surgery: A Clinical Guide to Optimizing Results, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Moschitti, LivingKnowledge: Kernel Methods for Relational Learning and Semantic Modeling, in: T. Margaria, B. Steffen (Eds.), Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: 4th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications, ISoLA 2010, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 18-21, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 15–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CJC Open.

Blog post
E. Andrew, 4 Ways You Can Observe Relativity In Everyday Life, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mass Transit: Federal Action Could Help Transit Agencies Address Security Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Ji, Dynamic Genetic Control: Manipulating Cell Behaviors Using Heat, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Judges Catch Up, With Some Cramming, New York Times. (2002) A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCJC Open
ISSN (print)2589-790X

Other styles