How to format your references using the CJC Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CJC Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.J. Nye, Portraits of science. “The most versatile physicist of his generation,” Science. 296 (2002) 49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.J. Phrampus, M.J. Hornbach, Recent changes to the Gulf Stream causing widespread gas hydrate destabilization, Nature. 490 (2012) 527–530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z.-R. Zhao, W. Li, H. Long, Readministration of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer patients after initial failure, what affects its efficacy?, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5996.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.C. Quezada, G. Saussine, P. Breul, F. Radjaï, Predicting the settlement of coarse granular materials under vertical loading, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Horton, Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
X. Yao, Filtering and Control of Stochastic Jump Hybrid Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Mau, Who are the Globalizers? The Role of Education and Educational Elites, in: L. Meier, H. Lange (Eds.), The New Middle Classes: Globalizing Lifestyles, Consumerism and Environmental Concern, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CJC Open.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Are We Living In A Hologram?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Climate Monitoring: NOAA Can Improve Management of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.N. Williams, Inclusive Classrooms: A Basic Qualitative Study of K-8 Urban Charter School Teachers, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, Dick Grayson Outgrows the Robin Costume, New York Times. (2015) D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCJC Open
ISSN (print)2589-790X

Other styles