How to format your references using the CJC Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CJC Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K.S. Lackner, Climate change. A guide to CO2 sequestration, Science. 300 (2003) 1677–1678.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Meyer, N. Brose, Neuroscience. SPARring with spines, Science. 302 (2003) 1341–1344.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Grieco, A.J. van Noordwijk, M.E. Visser, Evidence for the effect of learning on timing of reproduction in blue tits, Science. 296 (2002) 136–138.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.D. Briggs, T. Xiao, Z.-W. Sun, J.A. Caldwell, J. Shabanowitz, D.F. Hunt, C.D. Allis, B.D. Strahl, Gene silencing: trans-histone regulatory pathway in chromatin, Nature. 418 (2002) 498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.A. Armstrong, A.C. Hilton, Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
M. Whitehorn, Inside Relational Databases with Examples in Access, Springer, London, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Bansal, T. Vredeveld, R. van der Zwaan, Approximating Vector Scheduling: Almost Matching Upper and Lower Bounds, in: A. Pardo, A. Viola (Eds.), LATIN 2014: Theoretical Informatics: 11th Latin American Symposium, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 31–April 4, 2014. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CJC Open.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, The Solar Neighborhood Might Be Full Of Brown Dwarfs, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Competitive Impact of Restructuring the International Satellite Organizations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.E. Kingston, Genome-wide analysis of divergence and introgression in towhee hybrid zones, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Strauss, Like Father, Like Son. Like the Cubs? No Way!, New York Times. (2016) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCJC Open
ISSN (print)2589-790X

Other styles