How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruiz-Casares, M. (2014). Mental health: Tailor informed-consent processes. Nature 513, 304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weatheritt, R. J., and Babu, M. M. (2013). Evolution. The hidden codes that shape protein evolution. Science 342, 1325–1326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richard, D., Clanet, C., and Quéré, D. (2002). Contact time of a bouncing drop. Nature 417, 811.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wood, W. T., Gettrust, J. F., Chapman, N. R., Spence, G. D., and Hyndman, R. D. (2002). Decreased stability of methane hydrates in marine sediments owing to phase-boundary roughness. Nature 420, 656–660.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, C. (2006). Electricity Markets. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Maziero, C. A., Gabriel Silva, J., Andrade, A. M. S., and Assis Silva, F. M. de eds. (2005). Dependable Computing: Second Latin-American Symposium, LADC 2005, Salvador, Brazil, October 25-28, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Eldaw, E., Zeki, A. M., and Senan, S. (2013). “Analysis of Wardriving Activity and WiFi Access Points,” in Wireless Sensor Networks for Developing Countries: First International Conference, WSN4DC, Jamshoro, Pakistan, April 24-26, 2013, Revised Selected Papers Communications in Computer and Information Science., eds. F. K. Shaikh, B. S. Chowdhry, H. M. Ammari, M. A. Uqaili, and A. Shah (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 51–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Waste Disposal In US Landfills Underestimated By 115%. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narayanan, B. C. (2008). Structure function diversity within the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily as revealed by the enzymes oxaloacetate decarboxylase and 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016). Mets Lose Game but Not Any Ground. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruiz-Casares, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ruiz-Casares, 2014; Weatheritt and Babu, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weatheritt and Babu, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wood et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
AbbreviationFront. Genet.
ISSN (online)1664-8021
Molecular Medicine

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