How to format your references using the Frontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian, A. C. (2008). Astronomy. A blast from the past. Science 320, 1167–1168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pielke, R. A., Sr, and Chase, T. N. (2004). Comment on “Contributions of anthropogenic and natural forcing to recent tropopause height changes.” Science 303, 1771; author reply 1771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffman, B. D., Grashoff, C., and Schwartz, M. A. (2011). Dynamic molecular processes mediate cellular mechanotransduction. Nature 475, 316–323.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao, Z., Bao, K., Li, D., Duan, D., Tian, F., Jin, X., et al. (2014). Nitrogen concentration driving the hardness of rhenium nitrides. Sci. Rep. 4, 4797.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul, C. R. (2011). Transmission Lines in Digital Systems for EMC Practitioners. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reaman, G. H., and Smith, F. O. eds. (2011). Childhood Leukemia: A Practical Handbook. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, W., Zhan, C., and Hou, H. (2014). “Targeted Liposomes and Micelles as Carriers for Cancer Therapy,” in Nano-Oncologicals: New Targeting and Delivery Approaches Advances in Delivery Science and Technology., eds. M. J. Alonso and M. Garcia-Fuentes (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 95–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Researchers Use Light To Recover ‘Lost’ Memories. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). U.S. Merchant Marine: Maritime Administration Should Assess Potential Mariner-Training Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bourgault, R. R. (2008). Multi-scale pedologic investigation of manganiferous soils in the Maryland Piedmont.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. (2007). Tools for Travelers. New York Times, H2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fabian, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Pielke and Chase, 2004; Fabian, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pielke and Chase, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
AbbreviationFront. Genet.
ISSN (online)1664-8021
Molecular Medicine

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