How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Ovid’ko IA. Materials science. Deformation of nanostructures. Science, 295, 2386 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Wilhite AW, Fong EA. Scientific publications. Coercive citation in academic publishing. Science, 335, 542–3 (2012).
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Mishra L, Derynck R, Mishra B. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling in stem cells and cancer. Science, 310, 68–71 (2005).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
Nakagawa T, Kitagawa H, Yasuda Y, Tarasov PE, Nishida K, Gotanda K, Sawai Y, Yangtze River Civilization Program Members. Asynchronous climate changes in the North Atlantic and Japan during the last termination. Science, 299, 688–91 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Sturges RH Jr. Practical Field Robotics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, (2014).
An edited book
[1]
Beckner M. Pro RFID in BizTalk Server 2009. Apress, Berkeley, CA, (2009).
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Barenboim L, Elkin M. Combinatorial Algorithms for Distributed Graph Coloring. Distributed Computing: 25th International Symposium, DISC 2011, Rome, Italy, September 20-22, 2011. Proceedings. (Peleg David ed.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp.66–81 (2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. “Scientists Find Area Of The Brain That Motivates Us To Exercise”.: <https://www.iflscience.com/brain/scientists-find-area-brain-motivates-us-exercise/>, cited 30 October, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. International Space Station: Measurable Performance Targets and Documentation Needed to Better Assess Management of National Laboratory, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Alderson M. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Hollander S. Fordham Produces Five Records and a Rout, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (online)2348-0335
Scope

Other styles