How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research (JOAPR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holtz TR Jr. Palaeontology: mystery of the horrible hands solved. Nature, 515, 203–5 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Ronald P, Leung H. The rice genome. The most precious things are not jade and pearls. Science, 296, 58–9 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooks HE, Carbin GW, Marsh PT. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States. Science, 346, 349–52 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pandit PS, Bunn DA, Pande SA, Aly SS. Modeling highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission in wild birds and poultry in West Bengal, India. Sci. Rep., 3, 2175 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laheurte J-M, Ripoll C, Paret D, Loussert C. UHF RFID Technologies for Identification and Traceability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, (2014).
An edited book
Latin America after the Financial Crisis: Economic Ramifications from Heterodox Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Chevalier C, Ginsbourger D, Bect J, Molchanov I. Estimating and Quantifying Uncertainties on Level Sets Using the Vorob’ev Expectation and Deviation with Gaussian Process Models. mODa 10 – Advances in Model-Oriented Design and Analysis: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop in Model-Oriented Design and Analysis Held in Łagów Lubuski, Poland, June 10–14, 2013. (Ucinski Dariusz , Atkinson Anthony C , Patan Maciej ed.), Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, pp.35–43 (2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research.

Blog post
Evans K. “Ancient Turtles Evolved Necks To Snap Up Prey, Not As Timid Defense”.: <>, cited 30 October, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Air Force Continued To Develop the Advanced Logistics System, a Program It Was Directed To Cancel, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stangl BL. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Express Concern Over Aspects of Some Texas Redistricting, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Pharm. Res.
ISSN (online)2348-0335

Other styles