How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Crystallography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Crystallography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cassman, M. (2003). Science 300, 756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schindler, D. E. & Hilborn, R. (2015). Science 347, 953–954.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pham, T. C. T., Kim, H. S. & Yoon, K. B. (2011). Science 334, 1533–1538.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Koller, J., Baumer, U., Kaup, Y., Schmid, M. & Weser, U. (2003). Nature 425, 784.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitai, A. (2011). Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes: The role of the PN junction Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nielsen, M., Kučera, A., Miltersen, P. B., Palamidessi, C., Tůma, P. & Valencia, F. (2009). SOFSEM 2009: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: 35th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Špindlerův Mlýn, Czech Republic, January 24-30, 2009. Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Turon, A., Costa, J., Camanho, P. P. & Maimí, P. (2008). Vol. Mechanical Response of Composites, edited by C. G. Dávila, S. T. Pinho & J. J. C. Remmers. pp. 77–97. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Crystallography.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Transportation Security Research: Coordination Needed in Selecting and Implementing Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessments Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson, K. L. (2017). Patient and Family Engagement Initiative: A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Analysis. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017). New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cassman, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cassman, 2003; Schindler & Hilborn, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schindler & Hilborn, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Koller et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Crystallography
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Crystallogr.
ISSN (online)1600-5767
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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