How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Crystallography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Crystallography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Black, D. E. (2002). Science. 297, 528–529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tamura, A. & Yui, N. (2014). Sci. Rep. 4, 4356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffrey, J. L., Terrett, J. A. & MacMillan, D. W. C. (2015). Science. 349, 1532–1536.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Luo, M.-X., Chen, X.-B., Yang, Y.-X. & Wang, X. (2014). Sci. Rep. 4, 4044.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirchner, T. (2016). Merger Arbitrage Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
(2007). Virtual Reality: Second International Conference, ICVR 2007, Held as part of HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007. Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kroon, F. (2016). Comparative Philosophy and J.L. Shaw, Vol. edited by P. Bilimoria & M. Hemmingsen, pp. 39–53. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Crystallography.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017). Watch Live As A Giraffe Gives Birth On Camera IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Internal Control Weaknesses Need to Be Corrected to Help Achieve Security Objectives Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caltrider, C. S. (2017). Critical Pedagogy Unit of Ceramics Instruction: Fostering Civic Engagement in California High School Students. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016). New York Times. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Black, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Black, 2002; Tamura & Yui, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tamura & Yui, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Crystallography
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Crystallogr.
ISSN (online)1600-5767
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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