How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Crystallography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Crystallography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chen, J. (2001). Nature. 410, 31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pfeiffer, B. E. & Foster, D. J. (2013). Nature. 497, 74–79.
A journal article with 3 authors
Russell, S. H., Hancock, M. P. & McCullough, J. (2007). Science. 316, 548–549.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Muscheler, R., Joos, F., Müller, S. A. & Snowball, I. (2005). Nature. 436, E3-4; discussion E4-5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Datta, T. K. (2010). Seismic Analysis of Structures Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
(2009). Intelligent Distributed Computing III: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2009, Ayia Napa, Cyprus,October 2009 Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ohnishi, A. (2015). Microbial Factories: Biofuels, Waste Treatment: Volume 1, Vol. edited by V.C. Kalia, pp. 47–71. New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Crystallography.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). 2016 Officially Saw Great Barrier Reef Suffer Worst Bleaching Ever Recorded IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Costs of Compliance With the Renegotiation Act of 1951 Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell, V. M. (2014). A phenomenological study factors African American female college students face participating in engineering STEM majors. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M. & Kovaleski, S. F. (2014). New York Times. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chen, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Chen, 2001; Pfeiffer & Foster, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pfeiffer & Foster, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Muscheler et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Crystallography
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Crystallogr.
ISSN (online)1600-5767
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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