How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coleman, P. 2007. Frontier at your fingertips. Nature 446: 379.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunham-Snary, K.J., and Ballinger, S.W. 2015. GENETICS. Mitochondrial-nuclear DNA mismatch matters. Science 349: 1449–1450.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okuwaki, R., Yagi, Y., and Hirano, S. 2014. Relationship between high-frequency radiation and asperity ruptures, revealed by hybrid back-projection with a non-planar fault model. Sci. Rep. 4: 7120.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pan, Z., Lerch, S.J.L., Xu, L., Li, X., Chuang, Y.-J., Howe, J.Y., Mahurin, S.M., Dai, S., and Hildebrand, M. 2014. Electronically transparent graphene replicas of diatoms: a new technique for the investigation of frustule morphology. Sci. Rep. 4: 6117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Firth-Cozens, J., and Harrison, J. 2010. How to Survive in Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Gong, X. 2014. Social Group Utility Maximization. Edited ByX. Chen, L. Yang, and J. Zhang. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Unruh, W.G. 2013. Irrotational, Two-Dimensional Surface Waves in Fluids. Pages 63–80 in D. Faccio, F. Belgiorno, S. Cacciatori, V. Gorini, S. Liberati, and U. Moschella, eds. Analogue Gravity Phenomenology: Analogue Spacetimes and Horizons, from Theory to Experiment. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014.December 19. Bizarre, Ghost-Like Animal Sets New Record For Deepest Living Fish. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991. Space Shuttle: NASA Should Implement Independent Oversight of Software Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leak, S.C. 2010. Building community capacity to meet the needs of our aging society: Interdisciplinary competency development for professionals. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010.December 6. An Old-Fashioned Drubbing In December. New York Times: D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coleman 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Coleman 2007; Dunham-Snary and Ballinger 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dunham-Snary and Ballinger 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Animal Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-3984
ISSN (online)1918-1825
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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