How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Animal Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Animal Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raichle, M.E. 2006. Neuroscience. The brain’s dark energy. Science 314: 1249–1250.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pahlevan, K., and Morbidelli, A. 2015. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination. Nature 527: 492–494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gnone, G., Moriconi, T., and Gambini, G. 2006. Sleep behaviour: activity and sleep in dolphins. Nature 441: E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sen, D., Balakrishnan, B., Gabriel, N., Agrawal, P., Roshini, V., Samuel, R., Srivastava, A., and Jayandharan, G.R. 2013. Improved adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 5 vectors for gene therapy. Sci. Rep. 3: 1832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baudin, P. 2014. Wireless Transceiver Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Cummins, J., and Davison, C. (eds.) 2007. International Handbook of English Language Teaching. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Vajda, P., Ellmann, A., Meurers, B., Vaníček, P., Novák, P., and Tenzer, R. 2010. Harmonic Continuation and Gravimetric Inversion of Gravity in Areas of Negative Geodetic Heights. Pages 25–30 in S.P. Mertikas, ed. Gravity, Geoid and Earth Observation: IAG Commission 2: Gravity Field, Chania, Crete, Greece, 23-27 June 2008. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Animal Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015.October 19. Little Farmer, Big Pharma: The Quest To Modify Plants To ‘Grow’ Medicines. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2008. Health Information Technology: HHS Has Taken Important Steps to Address Privacy Principles and Challenges, Although More Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tubbs, M.A. 2014. The use of hand-constructed graphs in Microcomputer-Based Laboratories for kinematics instruction. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crawford, S. 2017.April 17. Trump’s Big Telecom Giveaway. New York Times: A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raichle 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Raichle 2006; Pahlevan and Morbidelli 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pahlevan and Morbidelli 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Sen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Animal Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Anim. Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-3984
ISSN (online)1918-1825
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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