How to format your references using the Seminars in Perinatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Perinatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwamb ME. Solar System: Stranded in no-man’s-land. Nature. 2014;507(7493):435-436.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson C, Jasin M. Frequent chromosomal translocations induced by DNA double-strand breaks. Nature. 2000;405(6787):697-700.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu M, Yu X, Ahlberg PE. A primitive sarcopterygian fish with an eyestalk. Nature. 2001;410(6824):81-84.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Erb RM, Son HS, Samanta B, Rotello VM, Yellen BB. Magnetic assembly of colloidal superstructures with multipole symmetry. Nature. 2009;457(7232):999-1002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.
An edited book
Matias Á, Nijkamp P, Sarmento M, eds. Quantitative Methods in Tourism Economics. Physica-Verlag HD; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Røsæg E. The Athens Convention on Passenger Liability and the EU. In: Basedow J, Magnus U, Wolfrum R, eds. The Hamburg Lectures on Maritime Affairs 2007 & 2008. Hamburg Studies on Maritime Affairs. Springer; 2009:55-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Perinatology.

Blog post
Taub B. ALS Patient Communicates Again Thanks To First-Of-Its-Kind Brain Implant. IFLScience. Published November 14, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Training: Expenditures for Troop Schools Have Not Been Justified. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eng R. Exploring Investors’ Decision Making Processes During the 2008 Financial Crisis Using Epstein’s Cognitive Experiential Self-Theory: A Multiple-case Study. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Pancakes: Yours, Any Of 100 Ways. New York Times. April 13, 2008:NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Perinatology
AbbreviationSemin. Perinatol.
ISSN (print)0146-0005
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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