How to format your references using the Seminars in Perinatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Perinatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christensen UR. A deep dynamo generating Mercury’s magnetic field. Nature. 2006;444(7122):1056-1058.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joly PB, Rip A. A timely harvest. Nature. 2007;450(7167):174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saturno WA, Stuart D, Beltrán B. Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala. Science. 2006;311(5765):1281-1283.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ferris P, Olson BJSC, De Hoff PL, et al. Evolution of an expanded sex-determining locus in Volvox. Science. 2010;328(5976):351-354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou C. Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Liu Z, Ukida H, Ramuhalli P, Niel K, eds. Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: Advances and Applications. 1st ed. 2015. Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nordström G, Johnsson H, Lidelöw S. Using the Energy Signature Method to Estimate the Effective U-Value of Buildings. In: Hakansson A, Höjer M, Howlett RJ, Jain LC, eds. Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12). Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Springer; 2013:35-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Perinatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Rosetta Sees Evidence Of Active Water-Ice Cycle On Comet 67P. IFLScience. Published September 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. and Soviet Bloc Training of Latin American and Caribbean Students: Considerations in Developing Future U.S. Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson J. Differences in Physical Activity Behavior between Insulin Using Diabetics versus Non-Insulin Using Diabetics. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Fear, Frustration and Fascination: Sharapova on Serena. New York Times. September 11, 2017:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Perinatology
AbbreviationSemin. Perinatol.
ISSN (print)0146-0005
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles