How to format your references using the Seminars in Perinatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Perinatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hope TJ. VIROLOGY. Visualizing trans-infection. Science. 2015;350(6260):511-512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schaefer BE, Pagnotta A. An absence of ex-companion stars in the type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5. Nature. 2012;481(7380):164-166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chan CM, Zhou C, Huang RH. Reconstituting bacterial RNA repair and modification in vitro. Science. 2009;326(5950):247.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hahn MW, Mezey JG, Begun DJ, et al. Evolutionary genomics: codon bias and selection on single genomes. Nature. 2005;433(7023):E5-6; discussion E7-8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner D. Trading ETFs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
He W. Gas Transport in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (Lv W, Dickerson J, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Vasco DW. Trajectory-Based Methods for Modeling and Characterization. In: Cai X, Yeh T-CJ, eds. Quantitative Information Fusion for Hydrological Sciences. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:69-103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Perinatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Horses Use Eyes And Ears To Communicate. IFLScience. Published August 5, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Facilities: Construction Expenditures Have Grown Significantly in Recent Years. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson B. Scale effects and the determinants of parcel subdivision: A discrete -time hazard analysis. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. William Schreyer, 83, Merrill Chief, Dies. New York Times. January 25, 2011:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Perinatology
AbbreviationSemin. Perinatol.
ISSN (print)0146-0005
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles