How to format your references using the Solid State Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.J. Feibelman, Partial dissociation of water on Ru(0001), Science. 295 (2002) 99–102.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Ueshima, T. Asami, Evolution: single-gene speciation by left-right reversal, Nature. 425 (2003) 679.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.M. Montoya, S.L. Pimm, R.V. Solé, Ecological networks and their fragility, Nature. 442 (2006) 259–264.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.A. Wertman, R.M. Yablonsky, Y. Shen, J. Merrill, C.R. Kincaid, R.A. Pockalny, Mesoscale convective system surface pressure anomalies responsible for meteotsunamis along the U.S. East Coast on June 13th, 2013, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lee, G. Bieker, Mastering, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009.
An edited book
S. Kurbanoğlu, S. Špiranec, E. Grassian, D. Mizrachi, R. Catts, eds., Information Literacy. Lifelong Learning and Digital Citizenship in the 21st Century: Second European Conference, ECIL 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia, October 20-23, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Gerhard, C. Wegg, M. Portail, Photometric Surveys of the Galactic Bulge and Long Bar, in: N.R. Napolitano, G. Longo, M. Marconi, M. Paolillo, E. Iodice (Eds.), The Universe of Digital Sky Surveys: A Meeting to Honour the 70th Birthday of Massimo Capaccioli, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 41–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Communications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Anomalous Great Basin Climate Record Resolved, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Advanced Reactor Research: DOE Supports Multiple Technologies, but Actions Needed to Ensure a Prototype Is Built, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.P. Purnell, Exploring teachers’ perceptions of professional development in virtual learning teams, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Last Mile May Be Hardest in Former A.I.G. Chief’s Legal Journey, New York Times. (2010) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Communications
AbbreviationSolid State Commun.
ISSN (print)0038-1098
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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