How to format your references using the Solid State Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Wineland, Norman Ramsey (1915-2011), Nature. 480 (2011) 182.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.K. Pan, S. Fortunato, Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4880.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.S. Ellis, T.M. Johnson, T.D. Bullen, Chromium isotopes and the fate of hexavalent chromium in the environment, Science. 295 (2002) 2060–2062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Yoshida-Ohuchi, M. Hosoda, T. Kanagami, M. Uegaki, H. Tashima, Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external γ-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Thiessen, Measuring the Real World, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, England, 1996.
An edited book
M.A. Tabrizi, G.G. Bornstein, S.L. Klakamp, eds., Development of Antibody-Based Therapeutics: Translational Considerations, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Zhou, W. Wang, Influence of the Initial Solidification Controlling on the Energy Saving during Continuous Casting, in: A. Jha, C. Wang, N.R. Neelameggham, D.P. Guillen, L. Li, C.K. Belt, R. Kirchain, J.S. Spangenberger, F. Johnson, A.J. Gomes, A. Pandey, P. Hosemann (Eds.), Energy Technology 2015: Carbon Dioxide Management and Other Technologies, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Communications.

Blog post
J. Fang, Birds Camouflage Nests Using Matching Colors, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Head Start: Information on Sponsoring Organizations and Center Facilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.W. Childers, Evaluating parental opinions of healthy snack guidelines for youth soccer, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Barnes, R. Abrams, J. Kantor, Sharing A Name Of Infamy, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Communications
AbbreviationSolid State Commun.
ISSN (print)0038-1098
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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