How to format your references using the Solid State Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.A. Cochrane, Fire science for rainforests, Nature. 421 (2003) 913–919.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.A. Frank, M.A. Nowak, Cell biology: Developmental predisposition to cancer, Nature. 422 (2003) 494.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.S. Lim, Y.S. Rim, H.J. Kim, Photoresist-free fully self-patterned transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistors obtained by sol-gel process, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4544.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.M. Hedman, J.A. Burns, M.S. Tiscareno, C.C. Porco, G.H. Jones, E. Roussos, N. Krupp, C. Paranicas, S. Kempf, The source of Saturn’s G ring, Science. 317 (2007) 653–656.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.V. Vaseghi, Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2001.
An edited book
S. Hellmüller, M. Santschi, eds., Is Local Beautiful?: Peacebuilding between International Interventions and Locally Led Initiatives, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Mokhtari, N. Martaj, Chapitre 5 Applications de la modélisation physique, in: N. Martaj (Ed.), Electronique Appliquée, Electromécanique Sous Simscape & SimPowerSystems (Matlab/Simulink), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 327–348.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Communications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Pluto’s Moons Behave Like Spinning Tops, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Lack of Effective Coordinated or Centralized Management Control of Closed-Circuit Television Used in DOD for Training and Education, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Al Hashimi, Local Measurement and Characterization via Fluorescing Materials for Phase Change Heat Transfer Applications, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Mandatory Military Service, New York Times. (2003) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Communications
AbbreviationSolid State Commun.
ISSN (print)0038-1098
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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