How to format your references using the Journal of Anesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Anesthesia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Montgomery MH. Astronomy. The pulse of distant stars. Science. 2008;322:536–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Graham LA, Davies PL. Glycine-rich antifreeze proteins from snow fleas. Science. 2005;310:461.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Goebel T, Waters MR, Dikova M. The archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Science. 2003;301:501–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sakatani T, Kaneda A, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Carter MG, de Boom Witzel S, Okano H, et al. Loss of imprinting of Igf2 alters intestinal maturation and tumorigenesis in mice. Science. 2005;307:1976–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bourlès H. Linear Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Yeakley JA, Maas-Hebner KG, Hughes RM, editors. Wild Salmonids in the Urbanizing Pacific Northwest. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cano EL, Moguerza JM, Corcoba MP. Modelling Quality with R. In: Martinez Moguerza J, Prieto M, editors. Quality Control with R: An ISO Standards Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 145–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Anesthesia.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Bacteria 2.0 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Challenges to Effective Adoption of the Extensible Markup Language. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Apr. Report No.: GAO-02-327.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Crooks RH. Analysis Of The XY Spin 1/2 Model In Staggered Field And Networks Of D-Wave Josephson Junctions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hanel M. The Octopus War. New York Times. 2013 Oct 16;MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Anesthesia
AbbreviationJ. Anesth.
ISSN (print)0913-8668
ISSN (online)1438-8359
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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