How to format your references using the Chinese Journal of Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Journal of Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macrakis K. Science and the Stasi. Nature. 2009;461(7264):594-595.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang ZL, Song J. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science. 2006;312(5771):242-246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Papp B, Pál C, Hurst LD. Dosage sensitivity and the evolution of gene families in yeast. Nature. 2003;424(6945):194-197.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smith GF, Steenkamp Y, Klopper RR, Siebert SJ, Arnold TH. The price of collecting life. Nature. 2003;422(6930):375-376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lincoln NB, Kneebone II, Macniven JAB, Morris RC. Psychological Management of Stroke. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Fog K. Storytelling: Branding in Practice. (Budtz C, Yakaboylu B, eds.). Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Konecsny K. EXPERIENCE FROM OPERATION OF THE JOINT HUNGARIAN-UKRAINIAN HYDROLOGICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM OF THE UPPER TISZA. In: Marsalek J, Stancalie G, Balint G, eds. Transboundary Floods: Reducing Risks Through Flood Management. Nato Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Springer Netherlands; 2006:33-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Journal of Traumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Latest Study Breathes New Life in Case About America’s Most Controversial Archaeological Discovery. IFLScience. Published June 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Adult Education: Measuring Program Results Has Been Challenging. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales DS. Identifying Factors and Quantifying Their Impact on Transportation Costs of Pre-Processes Biomass. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. SUPREME COURT TO HEAR DISPUTE ON REDISTRICTING. New York Times. December 13, 2005:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Journal of Traumatology
AbbreviationChin. J. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1008-1275
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles