How to format your references using the Chinese Journal of Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Journal of Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasevich MA. Coherence with atoms. Science. 2002;298(5597):1363-1368.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zahn LM, Travis J. Mutation and Human Disease. Hunting Mutations, Targeting Disease. Introduction. Science. 2015;349(6255):1470-1471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic J, Coontz R, Osborne I. Superconductivity. Happy 100th, superconductivity! Introduction. Science. 2011;332(6026):189.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gilad Y, Oshlack A, Smyth GK, Speed TP, White KP. Expression profiling in primates reveals a rapid evolution of human transcription factors. Nature. 2006;440(7081):242-245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn G. HPLC Methods for Recently Approved Pharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Tillema H, Westhuizen GJ van der, Smith K, eds. Mentoring for Learning: “Climbing the Mountain.” SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilson DJ, Allen GM. Paediatric Imaging. In: Benson M, Fixsen J, Macnicol M, Parsch K, eds. Children’s Orthopaedics and Fractures. Springer; 2009:49-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Journal of Traumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Camera Develops Pictures With Algorithms, Not Lenses. IFLScience. Published March 31, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Contract Management Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison C. Who Am I? Identity Formation of Children in Foster Care: A Curriculum Development. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wassener B, Hui M. Hong Kong Rents Push Out Mom and Pop Stores. New York Times. July 4, 2013:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Journal of Traumatology
AbbreviationChin. J. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1008-1275
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles