How to format your references using the Journal of Acute Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Acute Disease (JAD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White TW. Unique and redundant connexin contributions to lens development. Science 2002;295(5553):319–320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson MI, Wilson RJ. A topographically forced asymmetry in the martian circulation and climate. Nature 2002;416(6878):298–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy S, Wang D, Ruvkun G. A conserved siRNA-degrading RNase negatively regulates RNA interference in C. elegans. Nature 2004;427(6975):645–649.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alam MA, Smith RK, Weir BE, Silverman PJ. Thin dielectric films: Uncorrelated breakdown of integrated circuits. Nature 2002;420(6914):378.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant G, Broniatowski M. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Randall D, Salembier P (eds.). From CSCW to Web 2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design: Selected Papers from COOP08. Springer: London, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Nica DV, Bordean D-M, Borozan AB, Gergen I, Bura M, Banatean-Dunea I. Use of Land Snails (Pulmonata) for Monitoring Copper Pollution in Terrestrial Ecosystems. In: Whitacre DM, editor. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Springer: New York, NY, 2013: 95–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Acute Disease.

Blog post
Hale T. Video Of A Mock Occult Ritual At CERN Circulates Online. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Aging Issues in the 1980’s: A Computerized Information System]. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray E. California community college athletic directors lived experience and perceptions about financing issues with athletic programs. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philpott ML. Finding What I Need at the Mall. New York Times. 2017;:SR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Acute Disease
AbbreviationJ. Acute Dis.
ISSN (print)2221-6189

Other styles