How to format your references using the Journal of Acute Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Acute Disease (JAD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Milani A. Astronomy. Extraterrestrial material--virtual or real hazards? Science 2003;300(5627):1882–1883.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blackburn EH, Epel ES. Telomeres and adversity: Too toxic to ignore. Nature 2012;490(7419):169–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Church JA, White NJ, Arblaster JM. Significant decadal-scale impact of volcanic eruptions on sea level and ocean heat content. Nature 2005;438(7064):74–77.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang M, Bao W-J, Wang J, Wang K, Xu J-J, Chen H-Y, et al. A green approach to the synthesis of novel ‘Desert rose stone’-like nanobiocatalytic system with excellent enzyme activity and stability. Sci Rep 2014;4:6606.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golding P. Next Generation Wireless Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
Becchi CM. An Introduction to Relativistic Processes and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. 2nd ed. 2014. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Azócar Fernández PI, Buchroithner MF. Tendencies in Contemporary Cartography. In: Buchroithner MF, editor. Paradigms in Cartography: An Epistemological Review of the 20th and 21st Centuries. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: 41–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Acute Disease.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Have We Detected A Hint Of A New Force Of Nature? IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Credit Reporting Literacy Survey Data, an E-supplement to GAO-05-223. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perry EM. Live and let live: Negotiating difference in a diverse urban neighborhood. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A Comics Confab That Never Ends. New York Times. 2016;:F30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Acute Disease
AbbreviationJ. Acute Dis.
ISSN (print)2221-6189

Other styles