How to format your references using the Journal of Acute Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Acute Disease (JAD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman MA. Public health. Strengthening the FDA. Science 2002;298(5602):2332.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tang S, Presgraves DC. Evolution of the Drosophila nuclear pore complex results in multiple hybrid incompatibilities. Science 2009;323(5915):779–782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zarrinpar A, Park S-H, Lim WA. Optimization of specificity in a cellular protein interaction network by negative selection. Nature 2003;426(6967):676–680.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chai J, Du C, Wu JW, Kyin S, Wang X, Shi Y. Structural and biochemical basis of apoptotic activation by Smac/DIABLO. Nature 2000;406(6798):855–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corten R. Computational Approaches to Studying the Co-evolution of Networks and Behavior in Social Dilemmas. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
Meersman R, Dillon T, Herrero P, Kumar A, Reichert M, Qing L, et al. (eds.). On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2011: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, DOA-SVI, and ODBASE 2011, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, October 17-21, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Orsini F, Erba PA, Cantini R, Lazzeri E, Sollini M, Cataldi AG, et al. Radiofarmaci diagnostici convenzionali. In: Volterrani D, Mariani G, Erba PA, editors. Fondamenti di medicina nucleare: Tecniche e applicazioni. Springer: Milano, 2010: 41–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Acute Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Tomb of Ancient, Unknown Queen Discovered In Egypt. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. SSA Data Communications Contracts With Paradyne Corporation Demonstrate the Need for Improved Management Controls. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He H. Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Flows in a Pulse Detonation Engine by the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method. 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Induct Steinbrenner? Let’s Think About This. New York Times. 2010;:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Acute Disease
AbbreviationJ. Acute Dis.
ISSN (print)2221-6189

Other styles