How to format your references using the Journal of Acute Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Acute Disease (JAD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrope M. Listing resumes for species at risk. Nature 2001;413(6851):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Belkhadir Y, Chory J. Brassinosteroid signaling: a paradigm for steroid hormone signaling from the cell surface. Science 2006;314(5804):1410–1411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lim HS, Rim YS, Kim HJ. Photoresist-free fully self-patterned transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistors obtained by sol-gel process. Sci Rep 2014;4:4544.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fukuda K, Hikichi K, Sekine T, Takeda Y, Minamiki T, Kumaki D, et al. Strain sensitivity and durability in p-type and n-type organic thin-film transistors with printed silver electrodes. Sci Rep 2013;3:2048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenberger WR. Risk-Adjusted Lending Conditions. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
Curtis N, Finn A, Pollard AJ (eds.). Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children IX. Springer: New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinha CK, Syed SHS, Hinds R. Parenteral Nutrition. In: Sinha CK, Davenport M, editors. Handbook of Pediatric Surgery. Springer: London, 2010: 29–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Acute Disease.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scientists Turn Harmful Algal Blooms Into High-Capacity Battery Components. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Provisions of S. 821, a Bill To Provide for Authorization of Appropriations for the Federal Communications Commission. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dzubaty DR. Understanding the undergraduate experience of the baccalaureate nursing student with English as an additional language. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kantor J, Abrams R, Haberman M. A First Daughter Assembling a Vast Portfolio. New York Times. 2017;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Acute Disease
AbbreviationJ. Acute Dis.
ISSN (print)2221-6189

Other styles