How to format your references using the JMM Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JMM Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes D. Ovarian cancer: beyond resistance. Nature 2015;527:S217.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fehr E, Gächter S. Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 2002;415:137–140.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti C, Kleffe J, Collins S. Oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales. Nature 2007;445:47–52.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Stubbs J, Simpson KM, Triglia T, Plouffe D, Tonkin CJ, et al. Molecular mechanism for switching of P. falciparum invasion pathways into human erythrocytes. Science 2005;309:1384–1387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans AW. Economics, Real Estate and the Supply of Land. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Fütterer DK, Damaske D, Kleinschmidt G, Miller H, Tessensohn F (eds). Antarctica: Contributions to Global Earth Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Praveen S, Gangadharan GR. SecDSIM: A Framework for Secure Data Storage and Identity Management in the Cloud. In: Mahmood Z (editor). Cloud Computing: Challenges, Limitations and R&D Solutions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. pp. 105–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JMM Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Researchers Use Gene Editing To Mimic A Mutation That Confers HIV Resistance In The Lab. IFLScience. (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Interstate Commerce Commission: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed in Determining Future of ICC’s Regulatory Functions. T-RCED-94-261; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 12 July 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart AR. Entrepreneurial perception: A survey of graduates of a global management MBA program. Doctoral Dissertation; Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M, Gelles D. Where’s My Wonka Bar? New York Times, 3 July 2017, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJMM Case Reports
AbbreviationJMM Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2053-3721

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