How to format your references using the JMM Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JMM Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson C. CRISPR: Move beyond differences. Nature 2015;522:415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang M, Lingner J. Cell signaling. Tel2 finally tells one story. Science 2008;320:60–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vais H, Foskett JK, Mak D-OD. InsP3R channel gating altered by clustering? Nature 2011;478:E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Zhang H, Bai Y, Zhang Y, Li X, Feng Y, et al. Designed synthesis of transition metal/oxide hierarchical peapods array with the superior lithium storage performance. Sci Rep 2013;3:2717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tebbani S, Lopes F, Filali R, Dumur D, Pareau D. CO 2 Biofixation by Microalgae. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
McMinn DJW (ed). Modern Hip Resurfacing. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Filoso S, Martinelli LA, Howarth RW, Boyer EW, Dentener F. Human activities changing the nitrogen cycle in Brazil. In: Martinelli LA, Howarth RW (editors). Nitrogen Cycling in the Americas: Natural and Anthropogenic Influences and Controls. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. pp. 61–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JMM Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Loss of Y Chromosome Increases Risk for Cancer and Early Death. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Structural Costs Continue to Challenge Legacy Airlines’ Financial Performance. GAO-05-834T; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 13 July 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grzeda S. Use of Binomial Cluster Analysis in the Identification of Temporary Disaster Debris Management Sites. Doctoral Dissertation; George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. A Continent’s Hopes Are Swatted Away. New York Times, 3 July 2010, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJMM Case Reports
AbbreviationJMM Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2053-3721

Other styles