How to format your references using the JMM Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JMM Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis MM. Immunology. Flexibility for specificity. Science 2015;347:371–372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carlini A, French R. Visual tracking combined with hand-tracking improves time perception of moving stimuli. Sci Rep 2014;4:5363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wuchty S, Jones BF, Uzzi B. The increasing dominance of teams in production of knowledge. Science 2007;316:1036–1039.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Anderson WA, Banerjee U, Drennan CL, Elgin SCR, Epstein IR, et al. Science education. Changing the culture of science education at research universities. Science 2011;331:152–153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jeong H. Architectures for Computer Vision. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Der R. The Playful Machine: Theoretical Foundation and Practical Realization of Self-Organizing Robots. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Kojevnikov A, Kulikov AS, Yaroslavtsev G. Finding Efficient Circuits Using SAT-Solvers. In: Kullmann O (editor). Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing - SAT 2009: 12th International Conference, SAT 2009, Swansea, UK, June 30 - July 3, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. pp. 32–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JMM Case Reports.

Blog post
Fang J. Polar Bears Must Swim For Several Days At A Time In The Melting Arctic. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: Status of OMB’s Review of Financial System Projects. GAO-12-184R; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 8 February 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilbert C. Factors Associated With Dietetic Interns’ Knowledge of Sodium and the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Doctoral Dissertation; California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J. New Research Center to Explore Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. New York Times, 2 November 2016, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJMM Case Reports
AbbreviationJMM Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2053-3721

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