How to format your references using the JMM Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JMM Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feldman DE. Physics. Electronically erased. Science 2014;344:1344–1345.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karplus PA, Diederichs K. Linking crystallographic model and data quality. Science 2012;336:1030–1033.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryckman JD, Jiao Y, Weiss SM. Three-dimensional patterning and morphological control of porous nanomaterials by gray-scale direct imprinting. Sci Rep 2013;3:1502.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Polacek N, Gaynor M, Yassin A, Mankin AS. Ribosomal peptidyl transferase can withstand mutations at the putative catalytic nucleotide. Nature 2001;411:498–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau D, Fatu A, Souchet D. Mixed Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Kim E, Kim BHS (eds). Quantitative Regional Economic and Environmental Analysis for Sustainability in Korea. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Poirier DR, Geiger GH. Energy Balance Applications in Fluid Flow. In: Geiger GH (editor). Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. pp. 113–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JMM Case Reports.

Blog post
Luntz S. Company Claims To Have Developed Working Hoverboard. IFLScience. (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Executive Guide: Best Practices in Achieving Consistent, Accurate Physical Counts of Inventory and Related Property. GAO-01-763G; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1 July 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pee G-Y. Sonochemical Remediation of Freshwater Sediments Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Doctoral Dissertation; Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Elaborate Measures Try to Tame Turbulence. New York Times, 1 March 2016, p. TR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJMM Case Reports
AbbreviationJMM Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2053-3721

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