How to format your references using the JMM Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JMM Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mellars P. Going east: new genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science 2006;313:796–800.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG. Neuroscience. AMPA receptors--another twist? Science 2010;327:1463–1465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lobell DB, Schlenker W, Costa-Roberts J. Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science 2011;333:616–620.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Thomson MC, Doblas-Reyes FJ, Mason SJ, Hagedorn R, Connor SJ, et al. Malaria early warnings based on seasonal climate forecasts from multi-model ensembles. Nature 2006;439:576–579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodman GB. Why Cultural Studies? Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Milsom JW, Böhm B, Nakajima K (eds). Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery. Second Edition. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Granov A, Tiutin L, Schwarz T. Breast Cancer. In: Granov A, Tiutin L, Schwarz T (editors). Positron Emission Tomography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. pp. 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JMM Case Reports.

Blog post
Hale T. Watch A Parachute Drop Go Wrong As Three Cars Slam Into The Ground. IFLScience. (2016, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on Funding of Correctional Projects. B-171019; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 4 April 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashrafzadeh MH. Provision of community services for the mentally challenged population in Iran. Doctoral Dissertation; University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brownmiller S. Hugh Hefner Was My Enemy. New York Times, 29 September 2017, p. SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJMM Case Reports
AbbreviationJMM Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2053-3721

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