How to format your references using the EcoSal Plus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EcoSal Plus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charlesworth D. 2008. Evolution. Competitive centromeres. Science 322:1484–1485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li G-W, Xie XS. 2011. Central dogma at the single-molecule level in living cells. Nature 475:308–315.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldo MA, Thompson ME, Forrest SR. 2000. High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer. Nature 403:750–753.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang J, Hupfeld CJ, Taylor SS, Olefsky JM, Tsien RY. 2005. Insulin disrupts beta-adrenergic signalling to protein kinase A in adipocytes. Nature 437:569–573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raju KSN. 2011. Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2016. Controversies in Caring for Women with Epilepsy: Sorting Through the Evidence. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Benavides-Serrato M, Borrero-Pérez GH, Cantera K JR, Cohen-Rengifo M, Neira R. 2013. Echinoderms of Colombia, p. 145–182. In Alvarado, JJ, Solis-Marin, FA (eds.), Echinoderm Research and Diversity in Latin America. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EcoSal Plus.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Antibiotic Overuse Might Be Why So Many People Have Allergies. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Compendium of Courses, 1997. 158343. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arntson JD. 2015. Heidegger and disclosive rhetoric: Two divergent paths in immanence and transcendence. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Eligon J. 2017. Ferguson Voters Return a White Mayor to Office. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEcoSal Plus
AbbreviationEcoSal Plus
ISSN (online)2324-6200

Other styles