How to format your references using the EcoSal Plus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EcoSal Plus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buzsáki G. 2007. The structure of consciousness. Nature 446:267.
A journal article with 2 authors
Novikov VN, Sokolov AP. 2004. Poisson’s ratio and the fragility of glass-forming liquids. Nature 431:961–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hartl FU, Bracher A, Hayer-Hartl M. 2011. Molecular chaperones in protein folding and proteostasis. Nature 475:324–332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nishiyama M, Ishikawa T, Rechsteiner H, Glockshuber R. 2008. Reconstitution of pilus assembly reveals a bacterial outer membrane catalyst. Science 320:376–379.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heritier S, Cantoni E, Copt S, Victoria-Feser M-P. 2009. Robust Methods in Biostatistics: Heritier/Robust Methods in Biostatistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2015. Education for Sustainability in Tourism: A Handbook of Processes, Resources, and Strategies1st ed. 2015. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Burred JJ, Haller M, Jin S, Samour A, Sikora T. 2008. Audio Content Analysis, p. 123–162. In Kompatsiaris, Y, Hobson, P (eds.), Semantic Multimedia and Ontologies: Theory and Applications. Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EcoSal Plus.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Warming Seas Will Set Marine Life On The Move, With Some Good News Among The Bad. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. HUD Information Systems: Immature Software Acquisition Capability Increases Project Risks. GAO-01-962. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mann KM. 2012. Evaluation of Transfer Technologies to Preserve Shoulder Function in SCI. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Szirtes G. 2016. Love and Violence. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEcoSal Plus
AbbreviationEcoSal Plus
ISSN (online)2324-6200

Other styles