How to format your references using the EcoSal Plus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EcoSal Plus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S. 2003. Finding your way. Nature 425:209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams BJ, Jorge y Jorge M del C. 2008. Aztec arithmetic revisited: land-area algorithms and Acolhua congruence arithmetic. Science 320:72–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu L, Leung EL-H, Tian X. 2011. Perspective: The clinical trial barriers. Nature 480:S100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bergemann M, Sesar B, Cohen JG, Serenelli AM, Sheffield A, Li TS, Casagrande L, Johnston KV, Laporte CFP, Price-Whelan AM, Schönrich R, Gould A. 2018. Two chemically similar stellar overdensities on opposite sides of the plane of the Galactic disk. Nature 555:334–337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homès B. 2012. Fundamentals of Software Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rieves RA. 2012. Investor Relations for the Emerging CompanySecond Edition. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Yen J-Y, Yor M. 2013. Brownian Excursion Theory: A First Approach, p. 57–64. In Yor, M (ed.), Local Times and Excursion Theory for Brownian Motion: A Tale of Wiener and Itô Measures. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EcoSal Plus.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2017. Seventeen Minor Planets Now Have New Names Thanks To A Competition. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Federal Oversight of State Medicaid Management Information Systems Could Be Further Improved. HRD-82-99. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Creason PJ. 2015. The assessment of student learning outcomes at a California community college: Insight from faculty in a single department. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2017. An Embrace on a Grim Day. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEcoSal Plus
AbbreviationEcoSal Plus
ISSN (online)2324-6200

Other styles