How to format your references using the EcoSal Plus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EcoSal Plus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brouwer PW. 2012. Physics. Enter the Majorana fermion. Science 336:989–990.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dragoi G, Tonegawa S. 2011. Preplay of future place cell sequences by hippocampal cellular assemblies. Nature 469:397–401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young WR, Roberts AJ, Stuhne G. 2001. Reproductive pair correlations and the clustering of organisms. Nature 412:328–331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matthews JM, Kuschnig R, Guenther DB, Walker GAH, Moffat AFJ, Rucinski SM, Sasselov D, Weiss WW, Kusching R. 2004. No stellar p-mode oscillations in space-based photometry of Procyon. Nature 430:51–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan NH, Wong HY. 2006. Simulation Techniques in Financial Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ingene CA. 2005. Mathematical Models of Distribution Channels. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Logan C. 2016. Risk Formulation: The New Frontier in Risk Assessment and Management, p. 83–105. In Laws, DR, O’Donohue, W (eds.), Treatment of Sex Offenders: Strengths and Weaknesses in Assessment and Intervention. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EcoSal Plus.

Blog post
Carpineti A. 2017. Astronomers Finally See The Faint Swirling Halo Surrounding An Active Galaxy. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. School-Linked Human Services: A Comprehensive Strategy for Aiding Students at Risk of School Failure. HRD-94-21. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schick VR. 2010. Examining the vulva: The relationship between female genital aesthetic perceptions and gynecological care. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. 2017. Review: ‘Carrie Pilby,’ Saved by Bel Powley, Superhero. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEcoSal Plus
AbbreviationEcoSal Plus
ISSN (online)2324-6200

Other styles