How to format your references using the JCC Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JCC Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eldridge JJ. Astrophysics: Windy stars that go with a bang. Nature 2014;509:431–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bruun E, Givoni M. Sustainable mobility: Six research routes to steer transport policy. Nature 2015;523:29–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samet JM, DeMarini DM, Malling HV. Biomedicine. Do airborne particles induce heritable mutations? Science 2004;304:971–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wildermuth S, Hofferberth S, Lesanovsky I, Haller E, Andersson LM, Groth S, et al. Bose-Einstein condensates: microscopic magnetic-field imaging. Nature 2005;435:440.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hu JC. Asset Securitization. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Kulkarni A, Huet G, editors. Sanskrit Computational Linguistics: Third International Symposium, Hyderabad, India, January 15-17, 2009. Proceedings. vol. 5406. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Quiceno HR, Loaiza GI, Arango JC. A Riemannian Geometry in the $q q -Exponential Banach Manifold Induced by q$ q -Divergences. In: Nielsen F, editor. Geometric Theory of Information, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 97–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JCC Open.

Blog post
Fang J. Human Pathogen Found in Gray Seal Pups. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Unmanned Vehicles: Assessment of DOD’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Master Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalafut AJ. Proactive cyberfraud detection through infrastructure analysis. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. In a Hospital Stay, No Time to Rest. New York Times 2007:F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJCC Open
AbbreviationJCC Open
ISSN (print)2212-0149

Other styles