How to format your references using the JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) (JAAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich ES. Whistleblowers at risk as science fails to correct itself. Nature. 2009;460(7258):949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Munk MR, Rückert R. To work or not shouldn’t be a question. Science. 2015;348(6233):470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Orihara Y, Kamogawa M, Nagao T. Preseismic changes of the level and temperature of confined groundwater related to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6907.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wisotzki L, Bacon R, Brinchmann J, et al. Author Correction: Nearly all the sky is covered by Lyman-α emission around high-redshift galaxies. Nature. Published online October 30, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fant KM. Logically Determined Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Whitacre DM, ed. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol 225. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ribatti D, Crivellato E. The Tumour Cell. In: Crivellato E, ed. Mast Cells and Tumours: From Biology to Clinic. Springer Netherlands; 2011:61-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants).

Blog post
Fang J. Neil deGrasse Tyson To Host Late-Night Talk Show. IFLScience. Published January 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: NASA’s National Aviation Operations Monitoring Service Project Was Designed Appropriately, but Sampling and Other Issues Complicate Data Analysis. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Risley L. Exploring Congruency between John A. Henschke’s Practice and Scholarship. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Republicans; Encircling Arkansas, Bush Opens Harsh Attack on Clinton’s Record. New York Times. September 23, 1992:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants)
ISSN (print)1547-1896
ISSN (online)0893-7400
ScopeNurse Assisting

Other styles