How to format your references using the JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) (JAAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Pennisi E. GENOMICS: Wellcome Trust Backs Genome Computation. Science. 2000;289(5479):525a.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
McNeill JR, Winiwarter V. Breaking the sod: humankind, history, and soil. Science. 2004;304(5677):1627-1629.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yan Z, Cai M, Shen PK. Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1646.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kubatkin S, Danilov A, Hjort M, et al. Single-electron transistor of a single organic molecule with access to several redox states. Nature. 2003;425(6959):698-701.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Choi N-E, Han JH. How Flavor Works. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Holz T, Bos H, eds. Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment: 8th International Conference; DIMVA 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 7-8, 2011. Proceedings. Vol 6739. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Larsen T, Smith BA, Rosenbloom B. Culture and Communication in International Marketing Channels. In: Manrai AK, Meadow HL, eds. Global Perspectives in Marketing for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 1999 World Marketing Congress. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:13-14.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants).

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Check Out This Remote Control SpaceX Falcon 9 Rocket Nail Its Landing. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement Assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Shackelford V. Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times. March 20, 2015:C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants)
AbbreviationJAAPA
ISSN (print)1547-1896
ISSN (online)0893-7400
ScopeNurse Assisting

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