How to format your references using the JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) (JAAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Odame I. Perspective: we need a global solution. Nature. 2014;515(7526):S10.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Starr DA, Han M. Role of ANC-1 in tethering nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton. Science. 2002;298(5592):406-409.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Nederbragt AJ, van Loon AE, Dictus WJAG. Evolutionary biology: hedgehog crosses the snail’s midline. Nature. 2002;417(6891):811-812.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kim HS, Li A, Ahn S, Song H, Zhang W. Inositol Polyphosphate-5-Phosphatase F (INPP5F) inhibits STAT3 activity and suppresses gliomas tumorigenicity. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bucci D. Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Ceyhan Ö, Manin YI, Marcolli M, eds. Arithmetic and Geometry Around Quantization. Vol 279. Birkhäuser; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Rührmair U, Busch H, Katzenbeisser S. Strong PUFs: Models, Constructions, and Security Proofs. In: Sadeghi A-R, Naccache D, eds. Towards Hardware-Intrinsic Security: Foundations and Practice. Information Security and Cryptography. Springer; 2010:79-96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants).

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Indo-European Languages Originated 6,000 Years Ago in Russian Grasslands. IFLScience. Published February 20, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/indo-european-languages-may-have-originated-6000-years-ago-russian-grasslands/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Narrowband Personal Communications Services and Competitive Bidding. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Cope JA. Coastal squeeze of vegetation zones in the Los Cerritos Wetlands: The effect of sea level rise. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly M. Clinton Names Team to Probe U.S. Agencies. New York Times. November 26, 1992:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants)
AbbreviationJAAPA
ISSN (print)1547-1896
ISSN (online)0893-7400
ScopeNurse Assisting

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