How to format your references using the JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) (JAAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fry DP. Life without war. Science. 2012;336(6083):879-884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tagle R, Claeys P. Comet or asteroid shower in the late Eocene? Science. 2004;305(5683):492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones GH, Balogh A, Horbury TS. Identification of comet Hyakutake’s extremely long ion tail from magnetic field signatures. Nature. 2000;404(6778):574-576.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Anway MD, Cupp AS, Uzumcu M, Skinner MK. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility. Science. 2005;308(5727):1466-1469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raju KSN. Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Erdmann V, Barciszewski J, Brosius J, eds. RNA Towards Medicine. Vol 173. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Hageman MJ. Solubility, Solubilization and Dissolution in Drug Delivery During Lead Optimization. In: Borchardt RT, Kerns EH, Hageman MJ, Thakker DR, Stevens JL, eds. Optimizing the “Drug-Like” Properties of Leads in Drug Discovery. Biotechnology: Pharmaceutical Aspects. Springer; 2006:99-130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants).

Blog post
Taub B. Dispersant May Have Actually Hindered Oil-Degrading Microbes During BP Spill Clean-Up. IFLScience. Published November 10, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Overseas Allowances: Improvements Needed in Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valadez I. A Psycho-Education Peer Support Group for Homeless Youth: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Paralympics; Iranian Cyclist Dies After Crash at Rio Games. New York Times. September 18, 2016:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants)
ISSN (print)1547-1896
ISSN (online)0893-7400
ScopeNurse Assisting

Other styles