How to format your references using the JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants) (JAAPA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Raymond JC. Astronomy. Cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants. Science. 2009;325(5941):683-684.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Roska B, Werblin F. Vertical interactions across ten parallel, stacked representations in the mammalian retina. Nature. 2001;410(6828):583-587.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Krieger MJ, Billeter JB, Keller L. Ant-like task allocation and recruitment in cooperative robots. Nature. 2000;406(6799):992-995.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Knaut H, Werz C, Geisler R, Nüsslein-Volhard C, Tübingen 2000 Screen Consortium. A zebrafish homologue of the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 is a germ-cell guidance receptor. Nature. 2003;421(6920):279-282.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gregory J. Central Counterparties. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Neustein A, Markowitz JA, eds. Where Humans Meet Machines: Innovative Solutions for Knotty Natural-Language Problems. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bonesso S, Comacchio A, Pizzi C. Open Innovation at Project Level: Key Issues and Future Research Agenda. In: Bonesso S, Comacchio A, Pizzi C, eds. Project-Based Knowledge in Organizing Open Innovation. London: Springer; 2014:85-95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants).

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Secrets of the Flying Snake Revealed. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/secrets-flying-snake-revealed/. Published April 2, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Examination Into Possible Irregularities in the Use of Federal Funds in the Administration of the Chemawa Indian School in Marion County, Oregon]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Brigida MD. Target stock price runup prior to acquisitions. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Hollander S. Even Among Venerable Texts, A Torah Like No Other. New York Times. March 8, 2009:CY5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAPA (Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants)
AbbreviationJAAPA
ISSN (print)1547-1896
ISSN (online)0893-7400
ScopeNurse Assisting

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