How to format your references using the JAAD Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAD Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blake D. Biodiscovery--from reef to outback. Nature. 2004;429(6991 Suppl):15-17.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peters SE, Gaines RR. Formation of the “Great Unconformity” as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion. Nature. 2012;484(7394):363-366.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfleiderer C, Julian SR, Lonzarich GG. Non-Fermi-liquid nature of the normal state of itinerant-electron ferromagnets. Nature. 2001;414(6862):427-430.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kusurkar TS, Tandon I, Sethy NK, et al. Fluorescent silk cocoon creating fluorescent diatom using a “Water glass-fluorophore ferry.” Sci Rep. 2013;3:3290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robertson B, Vignaux GA, Berger CEH. Interpreting Evidence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Howden D, Salerno JT, eds. The Fed at One Hundred: A Critical View on the Federal Reserve System. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Holčapek M, Tichý T. Option Pricing with Fuzzy Parameters via Monte Carlo Simulation. In: Zhou M, ed. Advances in Education and Management: International Symposium, ISAEBD 2011, Dalian, China, August 6-7, 2011, Proceedings, Part IV. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2011:25-33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAD Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew D. Watch What Happens When You Put A Red-Hot Nickel Ball On Ice. IFLScience. Published August 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Strategic Focus Needed to Improve Information Resources Management. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers R. What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader? Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M. Voter Fraud Panel Leads to Friction. New York Times. July 10, 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAD Case Reports
AbbreviationJAAD Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-5126

Other styles