How to format your references using the JAAD Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAD Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Church JA. Climate change. How fast are sea levels rising? Science. 2001;294(5543):802-803.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig B, Szostak JW. Selection and evolution of enzymes from a partially randomized non-catalytic scaffold. Nature. 2007;448(7155):828-831.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jansen VAA, Mashanova A, Petrovskii S. Comment on “Lévy walks evolve through interaction between movement and environmental complexity.” Science. 2012;335(6071):918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bailes M, Bates SD, Bhalerao V, et al. Transformation of a star into a planet in a millisecond pulsar binary. Science. 2011;333(6050):1717-1720.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tostmann K-H. Korrosion. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Cabestany J, Rojas I, Joya G, eds. Advances in Computational Intelligence: 11th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2011, Torremolinos-Málaga, Spain, June 8-10, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Vol 6691. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Kribich RK. Refractometric Photonic Chips for Biosensing. In: Fritzsche W, Popp J, eds. Optical Nano- and Microsystems for Bioanalytics. Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:155-180.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAD Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Reveal Mechanism of Giant Plasma Solar “Rainstorms.” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Afloat Prepositioning: Not All Equipment Meets the Army’s Readiness Goal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Florio ML. Assessing the impacts of knowing natural team player styles on team satisfaction and cohesion. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wyndham S. The Circles of Hellhaus. New York Times. September 4, 2017:BR19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAD Case Reports
AbbreviationJAAD Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-5126

Other styles