How to format your references using the JAAD Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAD Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow N. Stem cells: in search of common ground. Nature. 2008;451(7180):855-858.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lutz RA, Falkowski PG. Ocean science. A dive to Challenger Deep. Science. 2012;336(6079):301-302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu B, Baskin RJ, Kowalczykowski SC. DNA unwinding heterogeneity by RecBCD results from static molecules able to equilibrate. Nature. 2013;500(7463):482-485.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kasowski M, Grubert F, Heffelfinger C, et al. Variation in transcription factor binding among humans. Science. 2010;328(5975):232-235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lawless HT. Quantitative Sensory Analysis. John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Irving HR, Gehring C, eds. Plant Signaling Peptides. Vol 16. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Shen B, Stephansson O, Rinne M. Modelling Time Dependency. In: Stephansson O, Rinne M, eds. Modelling Rock Fracturing Processes: A Fracture Mechanics Approach Using FRACOD. Springer Netherlands; 2014:39-43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAD Case Reports.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Successfully Reverse Emotions Associated With Memory. IFLScience. Published August 28, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Statistical Agencies: A Comparison of the U.S. and Canadian Statistical Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Strong M. Investigation and Characterization of Features on a Cretaceous-Paleogene Seismic Horizon in Northern Louisiana. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A Local Board’s Coup On the Upper West Side. New York Times. July 1, 2001:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAD Case Reports
AbbreviationJAAD Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-5126

Other styles