How to format your references using the JAAD Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JAAD Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith S. Structural biology. Architectural options for a fatty acid synthase. Science. 2006;311(5765):1251-1252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peñuelas J, Filella I. Phenology. Responses to a warming world. Science. 2001;294(5543):793-795.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen HZ, Wang W, Yi XX. Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6455.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stefer S, Reitz S, Wang F, et al. Structural basis for tail-anchored membrane protein biogenesis by the Get3-receptor complex. Science. 2011;333(6043):758-762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson DA. Interpreting Land Records. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bosch A van D, Bouma G, eds. Interactive Multi-Modal Question-Answering. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ussery DW, Wassenaar TM, Borini S. An Overview of Genome Databases. In: Ussery DW, Wassenaar TM, Borini S, eds. Computing for Comparative Microbial Genomics: Bioinformatics for Microbiologists. Computational Biology. Springer; 2009:53-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JAAD Case Reports.

Blog post
Fang J. Early East Asians Mixed With Neanderthals More Than Once. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Assistance: Information on Payments Made Under the Disaster Relief and Insurance Reimbursement Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendez H. Examination of friendship and burnout among child welfare workers. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Finally, a New York Icon Will Exist Only in Memory. New York Times. November 10, 2002:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJAAD Case Reports
AbbreviationJAAD Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2352-5126

Other styles