How to format your references using the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine (CJSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Hassan M. Beijing 1987: China’s coming-out party. Nature. 2008;455:598–599.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Ridderinkhof KR, van den Wildenberg WPM. Neuroscience. Adaptive coding. Science. 2005;307:1059–1060.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Elsaesser H, Sauer K, Brooks DG. IL-21 is required to control chronic viral infection. Science. 2009;324:1569–1572.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Coulson T, Catchpole EA, Albon SD, et al. Age, sex, density, winter weather, and population crashes in Soay sheep. Science. 2001;292:1528–1531.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Cronin R. Reading Victorian Poetry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1
Bebis G, Boyle R, Parvin B, et al., editors. Advances in Visual Computing: Second International Symposium, ISVC 2006 Lake Tahoe, NV, USA, November 6-8, 2006. Proceedings, Part II. vol. 4292. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Niane LM, Bairam A. Age-Dependent Changes in Breathing Stability in Rats. In: Nurse Colin A., Gonzalez Constancio, Peers Chris, et al., eds. Arterial Chemoreception: From Molecules to Systems: Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012: 37–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Brain-Eating Amoeba Kicks Off Fatal Immune Response. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/brain-eating-amoeba-kicks-fatal-immune-response/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Aging Aircraft: FAA Needs Comprehensive Plan to Coordinate Government and Industry Actions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Todman JV. Applicability of health care leadership competence and leadership behaviors for women’s achieving health care executive status. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Shpigel B. At 8 Feet Tall, He Sat Down and Started Getting Noticed. New York Times. 2016:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Journal of Sport Medicine
AbbreviationClin. J. Sport Med.
ISSN (print)1050-642X
ISSN (online)1536-3724
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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