How to format your references using the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine (CJSM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Powell K. Analyse this. Nature. 2004;431:880–881.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Hill RA, Barton RA. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests. Nature. 2005;435:293.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Mouchel CF, Osmont KS, Hardtke CS. BRX mediates feedback between brassinosteroid levels and auxin signalling in root growth. Nature. 2006;443:458–461.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Makarova TL, Sundqvist B, Höhne R, et al. Magnetic carbon. Nature. 2001;413:716–718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Brown DJ. Cinnolines and Phthalazines: Supplement II. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1
Kielanowski P, Bieliavsky P, Odesskii A, et al., editors. Geometric Methods in Physics: XXXII Workshop, Białowieża, Poland, June 30-July 6, 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Marianecci C, Di Marzio L, Rinaldi F, et al. Niosomes. In: Uchegbu Ijeoma F., Schätzlein Andreas G., Cheng Woei Ping, et al., eds. Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Nanoscience: New York, NY: Springer; 2013: 65–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine.

Blog post
1
Fang J. Microbial Life Discovered Inside Deep-Sea Rocks. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/methane-breathing-microbes-discovered-within-deep-sea-rocky-mounds/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: GAO DTV Broadcaster Survey (GAO-08-528SP, April 2008), an E-supplement to GAO-08-510. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Reynaldo R. Healthcare Leaders Under the Age of 40 - Successful Strategies and Practices for Leading Healthcare Organizations. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times. 2015:C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Journal of Sport Medicine
AbbreviationClin. J. Sport Med.
ISSN (print)1050-642X
ISSN (online)1536-3724
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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