How to format your references using the JA Clinical Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JA Clinical Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cuervo AM. Cell biology. Autophagy’s top chef. Science. 2011;332:1392–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kozlova T, Thummel CS. Essential roles for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila mid-embryonic development. Science. 2003;301:1911–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bintanja R, van de Wal RSW, Oerlemans J. Modelled atmospheric temperatures and global sea levels over the past million years. Nature. 2005;437:125–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tian J, Chang C, Cao H, He K, Ma X, Xue Q, et al. Quantum and classical magnetoresistance in ambipolar topological insulator transistors with gate-tunable bulk and surface conduction. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Landragin F. Man-Machine Dialogue. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Schulz HD, Zabel M, editors. Marine Geochemistry. 2nd revised, updated and extended edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Krishans Z, Mutule A, Merkuryev Y, Oleinikova I. LTS D-Process Dynamic Optimization on all D-States. In: Mutule A, Merkuryev Y, Oleinikova I, editors. Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development: Methods for Large Technical Systems. London: Springer; 2011. p. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JA Clinical Reports.

Blog post
1. Davis J. There Are Only 30 Critically Endangered Vaquita Left In The World [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Resolving Conflict Over Integration Contractor’s Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-92-291BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Holmberg MB. Alternative nitrogen for subsequent southern switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production using cool-season legumes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Accreditation Restored At Nassau Medical Center. New York Times. 2007 Jun 3;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJA Clinical Reports
AbbreviationJA Clin. Rep.
ISSN (online)2363-9024

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