How to format your references using the JA Clinical Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JA Clinical Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Vilenkin A. Astronomy. The vacuum energy crisis. Science. 2006;312:1148–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Barbash S, Soreq H. Statistically invalid classification of high throughput gene expression data. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1102.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Grenfell BT, Bjørnstad ON, Kappey J. Travelling waves and spatial hierarchies in measles epidemics. Nature. 2001;414:716–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Guimerà R, Uzzi B, Spiro J, Amaral LAN. Team assembly mechanisms determine collaboration network structure and team performance. Science. 2005;308:697–702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Focardi SM, Fabozzi FJ, Bali TG. Mathematical Methods for Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Metkar S. Motion Estimation Techniques for Digital Video Coding. Talbar S, editor. New Delhi: Springer India; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mottola G. La valvola polmonare. In: Sheppard M, Pepper J, Rigby M, editors. Ecocardiografia clinica. Milano: Springer; 2006. p. 79–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JA Clinical Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Watch As 15 Years’ Worth Of Earthquakes Shake The Planet. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Earth Observing System: Broader Involvement of the EOSDIS User Community Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 May. Report No.: IMTEC-92-40.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Krometis L-AH. Microbial partitioning in urban stormwaters [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. New Focus on the Effects of Life Tenure. New York Times. 2007 Sep 10;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJA Clinical Reports
AbbreviationJA Clin. Rep.
ISSN (online)2363-9024

Other styles