How to format your references using the JA Clinical Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JA Clinical Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Morken JP. Organic chemistry: Catalysis marches on. Nature. 2014;508:324–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hedwig B, Poulet JFA. Complex auditory behaviour emerges from simple reactive steering. Nature. 2004;430:781–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McCulloh KA, Sperry JS, Adler FR. Water transport in plants obeys Murray’s law. Nature. 2003;421:939–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hu H, Tang J, Zhong H, Xi Z, Chen C, Chen Q. Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1484.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kusumoto F. Understanding Intracardiac EGMs. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Rizzi A. Logistica e tecnologia RFID: Creare valore nella filiera alimentare e nel largo consumo. Montanari R, Bertolini M, Bottani E, Volpi A, editors. Milano: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lajiness MJ. Nonsurgical Therapy; Catheters; Devices. In: Chancellor MB, Diokno AC, editors. The Underactive Bladder. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JA Clinical Reports.

Blog post
1. Fang J. New 4D Ultrasound Scans Reveal Effects of Smoking on a Fetus. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. D.C. Emergency Highway Relief Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Jun. Report No.: RCED-96-196R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kreisel M. Gabor frames for quasicrystals and K-theory [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Russian Cancels Pardon Request In Chechen Case. New York Times. 2004 Sep 22;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJA Clinical Reports
AbbreviationJA Clin. Rep.
ISSN (online)2363-9024

Other styles