How to format your references using the Tropical Doctor citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Doctor. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Attaran A. Where did it all go wrong? Nature 2004; 430: 932–933.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations. Nature 2000; 404: 762–766.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vidale JE, Dodge DA, Earle PS. Slow differential rotation of the Earth’s inner core indicated by temporal changes in scattering. Nature 2000; 405: 445–448.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biron D, Libros P, Sagi D, et al. Asexual reproduction: ‘midwives’ assist dividing amoebae. Nature 2001; 410: 430.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown M, Cutler TJ. Haematology Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.
An edited book
Vojta M, Röthig C, Schön G (eds). CFN Lectures on Functional Nanostructures - Volume 2: Nanoelectronics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Caravenna F, Dai Pra P. Variabili aleatorie discrete: esempi e applicazioni. In: Dai Pra P (ed) Probabilità: Un’introduzione attraverso modelli e applicazioni. Milano: Springer, 2013, pp. 189–230.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Doctor.

Blog post
Andrew E. Poll Shows 41% of American Adults Believe Antibiotics Treat Viruses. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: State Immunity in Infringement Actions. GAO-01-811, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 25 September 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hausmann RC. Organizing Ecosystems for Social Innovation: The Relationality of Contexts and Mechanisms in a Social Entrepreneurship Network. Doctoral Dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Carmen de Lavallade Skips Trump Reception. New York Times, 17 August 2017, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Doctor
AbbreviationTrop. Doct.
ISSN (print)0049-4755
ISSN (online)1758-1133
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles