How to format your references using the Tropical Doctor citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Doctor. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cooper TA. Molecular biology. Neutralizing toxic RNA. Science 2009; 325: 272–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Que L Jr, Tolman WB. Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis. Nature 2008; 455: 333–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rockman HA, Koch WJ, Lefkowitz RJ. Seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors and heart function. Nature 2002; 415: 206–212.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lemon B, Inouye C, King DS, et al. Selectivity of chromatin-remodelling cofactors for ligand-activated transcription. Nature 2001; 414: 924–928.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu SF. Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
Abu-Arafeh I, Özge A (eds). Headache in Children and Adolescents: A Case-Based Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakhravi R, Omran MT, Oommen BJ. On the Existence and Heuristic Computation of the Solution for the Commons Game. In: Nguyen NT (ed) Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XIV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, pp. 71–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Doctor.

Blog post
Fang J. Test Confirms There’s a Huge Hot Bubble Of Gas Caused By A Supernova In Our Galaxy. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Issues Raised concerning the Report, ‘The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working?’ PAD-78-43, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1 November 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsieh DA. Informed Technology Adoption Decisions Based on Innovation-Related Factors. Doctoral Dissertation, George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kurutz S. The Unsettling Thing About Ellen. New York Times, 23 April 2014, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Doctor
AbbreviationTrop. Doct.
ISSN (print)0049-4755
ISSN (online)1758-1133
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles