How to format your references using the Italian Journal of Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Italian Journal of Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Margolis HS. Physics. Opportunities knock with a more stable optical clock. Science. 2013;341:1185–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mattick JS, Gagen MJ. Mathematics/computation. Accelerating networks. Science. 2005;307:856–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Heywood KJ, Naveira Garabato AC, Stevens DP. High mixing rates in the abyssal Southern Ocean. Nature. 2002;415:1011–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Islam FS, Gault AG, Boothman C, Polya DA, Charnock JM, Chatterjee D, et al. Role of metal-reducing bacteria in arsenic release from Bengal delta sediments. Nature. 2004;430:68–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bahadori A. Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Smith D, Lommerse M, Metcalfe P, editors. Perspectives on Social Sustainability and Interior Architecture: Life from the Inside. 2nd ed. 2014. Singapore: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Iizuka M, Roje P, Vera V. The Development of Salmon Aquaculture in Chile into an Internationally Competitive Industry: 1985–2007. In: Hosono A, Iizuka M, Katz J, editors. Chile’s Salmon Industry: Policy Challenges in Managing Public Goods. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016. p. 75–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Italian Journal of Pediatrics.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Red Dwarf Planets Might Not Be That Habitable After All [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Capitalization and Use of the Automatic Data Processing Fund That Is Administered by the General Services Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 May. Report No.: B-115369.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zivkovic O. Ternary nanomaterials: Synthesis by alkalide reduction and characterization [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Mets’ Familia Arrested in Domestic Violence Case; 2017 Status in Doubt. New York Times. 2016 Nov 1;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleItalian Journal of Pediatrics
AbbreviationItal. J. Pediatr.
ISSN (online)1824-7288

Other styles