How to format your references using the Personalized Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personalized Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M. Whole-animal imaging: The whole picture. Nature. 463(7283), 977–980 (2010).
A journal article with 2 authors
Jucker M, Walker LC. Self-propagation of pathogenic protein aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature. 501(7465), 45–51 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Fraser CM, Eisen JA, Salzberg SL. Microbial genome sequencing. Nature. 406(6797), 799–803 (2000).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Suydam IT, Snow CD, Pande VS, Boxer SG. Electric fields at the active site of an enzyme: direct comparison of experiment with theory. Science. 313(5784), 200–204 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins BR. The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Serneels B, Steyaert M, editors. Design of High Voltage xDSL Line Drivers in Standard CMOS. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
del Pilar Agustín Llach M, Fontecha AF. Lexical Variation in Learners’ Responses to Cue Words: The Effect of Gender. In: Lexical Availability in English and Spanish as a Second Language. Jiménez Catalán RM (Ed.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 69–81 (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personalized Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. 3D Printer Makes Prosthetic Foot For Duck [Internet]. IFLScience (2014). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Challenges Exist in Stabilizing and Enhancing Passenger and Baggage Screening Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson SE. A case of rational irrationality: Evidence of expressive interest bias in state e-commerce sales and use tax legislation. (2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Sitter Wanted: Must Supply Nuts. New York Times, 144 (2001).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonalized Medicine
AbbreviationPer. Med.
ISSN (print)1741-0541
ISSN (online)1744-828X
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Medicine

Other styles