How to format your references using the HOMO citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HOMO. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cammack, N., 2011. Microbiology. Exploiting malaria drug resistance to our advantage. Science 333, 705–706.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ketov, S.V., Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V., 2013. Localized shear deformation and softening of bulk metallic glass: stress or temperature driven? Sci. Rep. 3, 2798.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wild, G., Gardner, A., West, S.A., 2009. Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world. Nature 459, 983–986.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamashita, A., Singh, S.K., Kawate, T., Jin, Y., Gouaux, E., 2005. Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of Na+/Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporters. Nature 437, 215–223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ganda, K.M., 2013. Dentist’s Guide to Medical Conditions, Medications, and Complications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Goodson, I.F., Loveless, A.M., Stephens, D. (Eds.), 2012. Explorations in Narrative Research, Studies in Professional Life and Work. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Bergeron, S., 2016. Transgressing Gender and Development: Rethinking Economy Beyond ‘Smart Economics,’ in: Dinerstein, A.C. (Ed.), Social Sciences for an Other Politics: Women Theorizing Without Parachutes. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HOMO.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Are Quantum Dot TVs – And Their Toxic Ingredients – Actually Better For The Environment? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. New L.A. Federal Courthouse: Evidence Is Insufficient To Suggest That Congress Reconsider Its Approval (No. GGD-88-43BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darvish, H., 2015. Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2016. At 8 Feet Tall, He Sat Down and Started Getting Noticed. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cammack, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cammack, 2011; Ketov and Louzguine-Luzgin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ketov and Louzguine-Luzgin, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamashita et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHOMO
ISSN (print)0018-442X

Other styles