How to format your references using the HOMO citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HOMO. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sastry, S., 2001. The relationship between fragility, configurational entropy and the potential energy landscape of glass-forming liquids. Nature 409, 164–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoon, T.P., Jacobsen, E.N., 2003. Privileged chiral catalysts. Science 299, 1691–1693.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huntington, J.A., Read, R.J., Carrell, R.W., 2000. Structure of a serpin-protease complex shows inhibition by deformation. Nature 407, 923–926.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tanaka, H., Kato, K., Yamashita, E., Sumizawa, T., Zhou, Y., Yao, M., Iwasaki, K., Yoshimura, M., Tsukihara, T., 2009. The structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Science 323, 384–388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer, G., Vovk, V., 2005. Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game!, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Silberschmidt, V.V. (Ed.), 2010. Computational and Experimental Mechanics of Advanced Materials, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Zalba, P.E., Morosi, M.E., Conconi, M.S., 2016. Olavarría County, in: Morosi, M.E., Conconi, M.S. (Eds.), Gondwana Industrial Clays: Tandilia System, Argentina-Geology and Applications, Springer Earth System Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 107–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HOMO.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. New Planetary Model Suggests More Gas Giant Planets Are Yet To Be Found [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. An Empty Pump Down the Road? (No. 136529). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meng, W., 2014. Synthesis and design of microwave wideband filters and components (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pols, M., 2015. With Friends Like These. New York Times BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sastry, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Sastry, 2001; Yoon and Jacobsen, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yoon and Jacobsen, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleHOMO
ISSN (print)0018-442X

Other styles