How to format your references using the HOMO citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HOMO. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basko, D., 2011. Applied physics. A photothermoelectric effect in graphene. Science 334, 610–611.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss, J., Marsan, D., 2003. Three-dimensional mapping of dislocation avalanches: clustering and space/time coupling. Science 299, 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kolodner, R.D., Putnam, C.D., Myung, K., 2002. Maintenance of genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science 297, 552–557.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roch, N., Florens, S., Bouchiat, V., Wernsdorfer, W., Balestro, F., 2008. Quantum phase transition in a single-molecule quantum dot. Nature 453, 633–637.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, R., 2006. Handbook of Retinal Screening in Diabetes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Soetaert, K., Herman, P.M.J. (Eds.), 2009. A Practical Guide to Ecological Modelling: Using R as a Simulation Platform. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Poizat, P., Royer, J.-C., Salaün, G., 2006. Bounded Analysis and Decomposition for Behavioural Descriptions of Components, in: Gorrieri, R., Wehrheim, H. (Eds.), Formal Methods for Open Object-Based Distributed Systems: 8th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, FMOODS 2006, Bologna, Italy, June 14-16, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HOMO.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Motor Neurone Disease Success in Animals [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Health Information Technology: HHS Should Assess the Effectiveness of Its Efforts to Enhance Patient Access to and Use of Electronic Health Information (No. GAO-17-305). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna, S.G., 2012. Colombian Spanish in North Carolina: The role of language and dialect contact in the formation of a new variety of U.S. Spanish (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2008. Offering Fresh Weapons Against Test Anxiety. New York Times LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basko, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Basko, 2011; Weiss and Marsan, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weiss and Marsan, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Roch et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHOMO
ISSN (print)0018-442X

Other styles