How to format your references using the HOMO citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HOMO. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D., 2002. Developing world gets patent aid. Nature 415, 563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rodriguez, A., Laio, A., 2014. Machine learning. Clustering by fast search and find of density peaks. Science 344, 1492–1496.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jönsson, T.J., Johnson, L.C., Lowther, W.T., 2008. Structure of the sulphiredoxin-peroxiredoxin complex reveals an essential repair embrace. Nature 451, 98–101.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schoonveld, W.A., Wildeman, J., Fichou, D., Bobbert, P.A., van Wees BJ, Klapwijk, T.M., 2000. Coulomb-blockade transport in single-crystal organic thin-film transistors. Nature 404, 977–980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J.-J., 2014. Hydraulic Fracturing in Earth-Rock Fill DAMS. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Shumaker, R. (Ed.), 2013. Virtual Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Augmented and Virtual Environments: 5th International Conference, VAMR 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jonathan-Zamir, T., Weisburd, D., Hasisi, B., 2014. How Do Majority Communities View the Potential Costs of Policing Terrorism?, in: Weisburd, D., Hasisi, B. (Eds.), Policing Terrorism, Crime Control, and Police-Community Relations: Learning from the Israeli Experience. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 99–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HOMO.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. What Exactly Does “Instantaneous’ Mean? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Opportunities for Oversight and Improved Use of Taxpayer Funds: Examples from Selected GAO Work (No. GAO-03-1006). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alvarez, D.J., 2010. Piloted simulation study comparing classical and robust flight control design methods (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2017. 2016’s Top Investors Offer Their Insights Into the Year Ahead. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2002; Rodriguez and Laio, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rodriguez and Laio, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schoonveld et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleHOMO
ISSN (print)0018-442X

Other styles