How to format your references using the HOMO citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HOMO. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoff, K., 2010. Behavior. Fairness in modern society. Science 327, 1467–1468.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard, M.S., Doupe, A.J., 2000. Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations. Nature 404, 762–766.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chin, G., Marathe, T., Roberts, L., 2011. Population. Doom or vroom? Introduction. Science 333, 538–539.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ivarsson, M., Broman, C., Sturkell, E., Ormö, J., Siljeström, S., van Zuilen, M., Bengtson, S., 2013. Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system. Sci. Rep. 3, 3487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pick, J.B., 2012. Geo-Business GIS in the Digital Organization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Diego, J.M., Goicoechea, L.J., González-Serrano, J.I., Gorgas, J. (Eds.), 2010. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics V, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Navarro-Brotons, V., 2013. Matter and Form in Sixteenth-Century Spain: Some Case Studies, in: Garber, D. (Ed.), The Mechanization of Natural Philosophy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 99–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HOMO.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Comet Battleground Discovered Surrounding Nearby System [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Airline Competition: Cargo Airline Has Enhanced Competition in Hawaii but Faces an Uncertain Future (No. RCED-98-156). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrett, C., 2010. Racial congruence and its effects on social integration and school involvement: A multi-level model (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaag, J., 2017. Cosmic Explorer. New York Times BR13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoff, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Brainard and Doupe, 2000; Hoff, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brainard and Doupe, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Ivarsson et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHOMO
ISSN (print)0018-442X

Other styles