How to format your references using the Issues in Environmental Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Issues in Environmental Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Sudbery, Science, 2002, 297, 351–352.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Belkaid and J. Grainger, Science, 2013, 342, 432–433.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z. B. Siu, M. B. A. Jalil and S. G. Tan, Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, 5062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. M. Cicchillo, H. Zhang, J. A. V. Blodgett, J. T. Whitteck, G. Li, S. K. Nair, W. A. van der Donk and W. W. Metcalf, Nature, 2009, 459, 871–874.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Maji and S. K. Pal, Rough-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
A. Favini, Degenerate Nonlinear Diffusion Equations, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012, vol. 2049.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Fiedor and T. Vojnar, in Runtime Verification: Third International Conference, RV 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, September 25-28, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, eds. S. Qadeer and S. Tasiran, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013, pp. 35–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Issues in Environmental Science and Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Check Out This Live stream Of Deep Underwater Exploration Around Hawaii, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Safety Research and Development--Better Management Can Make It More Useful, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Hoffmann, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Prochnik, New York Times, 2009, WK10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIssues in Environmental Science and Technology
ISSN (print)1350-7583
ISSN (online)1465-1874

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