How to format your references using the Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S. (2003). Twin peaks Rhône-Alpes. Nature 426, 366–367.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ranero, C. R., and Pérez-Gussinyé, M. (2010). Sequential faulting explains the asymmetry and extension discrepancy of conjugate margins. Nature 468, 294–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kürner, J., Frangakis, A. S., and Baumeister, W. (2005). Cryo-electron tomography reveals the cytoskeletal structure of Spiroplasma melliferum. Science 307, 436–438.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Levrard, B., Forget, F., Montmessin, F., and Laskar, J. (2004). Recent ice-rich deposits formed at high latitudes on Mars by sublimation of unstable equatorial ice during low obliquity. Nature 431, 1072–1075.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bolstad, W. M. (2009). Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Singh, L. R., Dar, T. A., and Ahmad, P. eds. (2015). Proteostasis and Chaperone Surveillance. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Grancharova, A., and Johansen, T. A. (2012). “Explicit MPC of Constrained Nonlinear Systems with Quantized Inputs,” in Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Theory and Applications Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences., ed. T. A. Johansen (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 111–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017). If Atoms Are Mostly Empty Space, Why Do Objects Look And Feel Solid? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Higher Education and Disability: Education Needs a Coordinated Approach to Improve Its Assistance to Schools in Supporting Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villanueva, R. (2015). Issues of performance practice: The influence of Franz Strauss upon Richard Strauss’s Horn Concerto No. 1.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. (2014). From Pilgrims, Putin Seeks Political Profit. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodman, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Goodman, 2003; Ranero and Pérez-Gussinyé, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ranero and Pérez-Gussinyé, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Levrard et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Invertebrate Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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