How to format your references using the Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ingham, P. W. (2001). Hedgehog signaling: a tale of two lipids. Science 294, 1879–1881.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrenfreund, P., and Foing, B. H. (2010). Astronomy. Fullerenes and cosmic carbon. Science 329, 1159–1160.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, S.-H., Kim, H., and Kim, N. J. (2015). Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility. Nature 518, 77–79.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shao, S., Wang, J., Misra, A., and Hoagland, R. G. (2013). Spiral patterns of dislocations at nodes in (111) semi-coherent FCC interfaces. Sci. Rep. 3, 2448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norton, L. (2013). How to Be a Global Nonprofit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alpert, G. P. (2014). Police Pursuit Driving: Policy and Research. , ed. C. Lum New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blokhuis, H., Veissier, I., Jones, B., and Miele, M. (2013). “The Welfare Quality® vision,” in Improving farm animal welfare: Science and society working together: the Welfare Quality approach, eds. H. Blokhuis, M. Miele, I. Veissier, and B. Jones (Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers), 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Nope, Your Intelligence Probably Isn’t Solely Inherited From Your Mother. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Proposed Alliance Between American Airlines and British Airways Raises Competition Concerns and Public Interest Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chandwasker, T. (2016). Comparison of ad-hoc on demand distance vector and enhanced-ad-hoc on demand distance vector on vehicular ad-hoc networks.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burfoot, A., and Hirsch, G. A. (2012). The Honorable Clan Of the Long-Distance Runner. New York Times, SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ingham, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Ingham, 2001; Ehrenfreund and Foing, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ehrenfreund and Foing, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Shao et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Invertebrate Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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