How to format your references using the Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Featherstone, D. (2009). Journal club. A neuroscientist argues for a broader approach to brain mapping. Nature 458, 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cloetingh, S., and Haq, B. U. (2015). Sea level change. Inherited landscapes and sea level change. Science 347, 1258375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang, C., Schwieters, C. D., and Clore, G. M. (2007). Open-to-closed transition in apo maltose-binding protein observed by paramagnetic NMR. Nature 449, 1078–1082.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu, J. H., Miller, S. M., Geurts, M. H., Tang, W., Chen, L., Sun, N., et al. (2018). Evolved Cas9 variants with broad PAM compatibility and high DNA specificity. Nature 556, 57–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adam, C. (2016). Forensic Evidence in Court. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jacobson, M., and Ciolkosz, D. eds. (2013). Wood-Based Energy in the Northern Forests. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimcheva, T., and Kraptcheva, S. (2008). “Lessons Learned and Good Practice in the Preparation of the National Implementation Plan (NIP) for the Management of Pops in the Republic of Bulgaria,” in The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security., eds. E. Mehmetli and B. Koumanova (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 31–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Our Ancestors Were Breeding With At Least Four, But Potentially More Species Of Other Hominins. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Education Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Augspurger, B. A. (2014). Teacher Perceptions of Effective School Leadership Using Twenty-first Century Skills and Knowledge.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). Dueling Frenchwomen Show Signs of a Thaw After Their Chilly Match. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Featherstone, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Featherstone, 2009; Cloetingh and Haq, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cloetingh and Haq, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Invertebrate Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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