How to format your references using the Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingras, M. J. P. (2009). Physics. Observing monopoles in a magnetic analog of ice. Science 326, 375–376.
A journal article with 2 authors
LaCour, M. J., and Green, D. P. (2014). Political science. When contact changes minds: an experiment on transmission of support for gay equality. Science 346, 1366–1369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmittner, A., Yoshimori, M., and Weaver, A. J. (2002). Instability of glacial climate in a model of the ocean- atmosphere-cryosphere system. Science 295, 1489–1493.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wertz, I. E., Kusam, S., Lam, C., Okamoto, T., Sandoval, W., Anderson, D. J., et al. (2011). Sensitivity to antitubulin chemotherapeutics is regulated by MCL1 and FBW7. Nature 471, 110–114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeMaris, A. (2004). Regression with Social Data: Modeling Continuous and Limited Response Variables. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stoecklin, D., and Bonvin, J.-M. eds. (2014). Children’s Rights and the Capability Approach: Challenges and Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nehring, D., Alvarado, E., Hendriks, E. C., and Kerrigan, D. (2016). “Self-Help in Crisis,” in Transnational Popular Psychology and the Global Self-Help Industry: The Politics of Contemporary Social Change, eds. E. Alvarado, E. C. Hendriks, and D. Kerrigan (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 75–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Paraplegic In “Ironman Suit” Will Take The First Kick In The 2014 World Cup. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Higher Education: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Trends and the Role of Federal Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuthbertson, T. H. (2014). The fool’s replies: Toward a poetics of folly in Shakespeare’s comedies.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Kelly With (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Vietnam War; Campaign Focus on Vietnam Reviving Debates of the 60’s. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dallek, 2009; Dyson, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (LaCour and Green, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Irvine et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Invertebrate Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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