How to format your references using the Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruan, Y. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. Presenting the human genome: now in 3D! Science 331, 1025–1026.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jucker, T., and Coomes, D. A. (2012). Comment on “Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands.” Science 337, 155; author reply 155.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oerlemans, J., Dahl-Jensen, D., and Masson-Delmotte, V. (2006). Ice sheets and sea level. Science 313, 1043–5; author reply 1043-5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Olsen, E. M., Heino, M., Lilly, G. R., Morgan, M. J., Brattey, J., Ernande, B., et al. (2004). Maturation trends indicative of rapid evolution preceded the collapse of northern cod. Nature 428, 932–935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhurin, V. V. (2011). Industrial Ion Sources. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Fischer-Hübner, S., Furnell, S., and Lambrinoudakis, C. eds. (2006). Trust and Privacy in Digital Business: Third International Conference, TrustBus 2006, Kraków, Poland, September 4-8, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wiltgen, B. J., Brown, R. A. M., Talton, L. E., and Silva, A. J. (2007). “Towards a Molecular and Cellular Understanding of Remote Memory,” in Memories: Molecules and Circuits Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences., eds. B. Bontempi, A. J. Silva, and Y. Christen (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). How To Prepare For A Tsunami. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Highlights of a Forum: Transforming Transportation Policy for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter, K. E. (2009). The use of boron-doped diamond film electrodes for the oxidative degradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate and trichloroethylene.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (1999). For Everyone, Non-Russians, Too, There’s a Personal Pushkin. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruan, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ruan, 2011; Jucker and Coomes, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jucker and Coomes, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Olsen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Invertebrate Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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