How to format your references using the Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wiseman, H. (2015). Quantum physics: Death by experiment for local realism. Nature 526, 649–650.
A journal article with 2 authors
Argus, J. P., and Bensinger, S. J. (2013). Immunology. Fueling function over expansion in T cells. Science 341, 37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Janjić, V., Sharan, R., and Pržulj, N. (2014). Modelling the yeast interactome. Sci. Rep. 4, 4273.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou, L., Mitra, R., Atkinson, P. W., Hickman, A. B., Dyda, F., and Craig, N. L. (2004). Transposition of hAT elements links transposable elements and V(D)J recombination. Nature 432, 995–1001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2014). MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Nedjah, N., Abraham, A., and Mourelle, L. de M. eds. (2007). Computational Intelligence in Information Assurance and Security. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Reichstaller, A., Eberhardinger, B., Knapp, A., Reif, W., and Gehlen, M. (2016). “Risk-Based Interoperability Testing Using Reinforcement Learning,” in Testing Software and Systems: 28th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2016, Graz, Austria, October 17-19, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. F. Wotawa, M. Nica, and N. Kushik (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 52–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016). How To Fight Hatred: Expose People To Even More Extreme Bigotry. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Women in STEM Research: Federal Agencies Differ in the Data They Collect on Grant Applicants. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilmore, A. G. (2017). Quantification of oxidative reaction efficiencies for hydroxyl radical oxidized antibiotics.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2017). Waiting. New York Times, MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wiseman, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Argus and Bensinger, 2013; Wiseman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Argus and Bensinger, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Invertebrate Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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