How to format your references using the Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paul, G. S. (2010). Comment on “Narrow primary feather rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx suggest poor flight ability.” Science 330, 320; author reply 320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schnell, J. R., and Chou, J. J. (2008). Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus. Nature 451, 591–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kohl, K. P., Jones, C. D., and Sekelsky, J. (2012). Evolution of an MCM complex in flies that promotes meiotic crossovers by blocking BLM helicase. Science 338, 1363–1365.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wee, F. H., Malek, F., Al-Amani, A. U., and Ghani, F. (2014). Effect of two different superstrate layers on bismuth titanate (BiT) array antennas. Sci. Rep. 4, 3709.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton, P. J. (2010). Principles of Flight for Pilots. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bertram, R. (2015). Mathematical Analysis of Complex Cellular Activity. 1st ed. 2015. , eds. J. Tabak, W. Teka, T. Vo, M. Wechselberger, V. Kirk, and J. Sneyd Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pettit, C., Nelson, A., and Cartwright, W. (2005). “Using On-Line Geographical Visualisation Tools to Improve Land Use Decision-Making with a Bottom-Up Community Participatory Approach,” in Recent Advances in Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, eds. J. P. V. Leeuwen and H. J. P. Timmermans (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). Beaches In Tasmania Are Glowing A Bright Electric Blue. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). NASA Report May Overstate the Economic Benefits of Research and Development Spending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, Z. B., II (2017). General Relativistic Non-Radial Oscillations in Compact Stars.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). Australian Persists in Chase for Elusive Title. New York Times, SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paul, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Paul, 2010; Schnell and Chou, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schnell and Chou, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Invertebrate Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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