How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schimel, David S. 2010. “Climate. Drylands in the Earth System.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5964): 418–419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sennett, Rachel, and Michael Rendl. 2015. “Developmental Biology. A Scar Is Born: Origins of Fibrotic Skin Tissue.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6232): 284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grassly, Nicholas C., Christophe Fraser, and Geoffrey P. Garnett. 2005. “Host Immunity and Synchronized Epidemics of Syphilis across the United States.” Nature 433 (7024): 417–421.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Barik, A. R., Mukund Bapna, D. A. Drabold, and K. V. Adarsh. 2014. “Ultrafast Light Induced Unusually Broad Transient Absorption in the Sub-Bandgap Region of GeSe2 Thin Film.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiselton, Anthony C. 2010. 1 & 2 Thessalonians: Through the Centuries. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Chudnovsky, David, and Gregory Chudnovsky, eds. 2010. Additive Number Theory: Festschrift In Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B. Nathanson. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Seppen, Jeannette, and Gerard Lucius. 2016. “Civilians in Military Operations: Blue on Blue?” In Effective Civil-Military Interaction in Peace Operations: Theory and Practice, edited by Gerard Lucius and Sebastiaan Rietjens, 45–59. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “What The Heck Is This Weird Purple Blob Found Off The Coast Of California?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Telecommunications: Issues Concerning Licensing of Telecommunications Engineers and Technicians. RCED-90-106FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackmar, Matthew D. 2012. “Wagner Domesticated, Wagner Democratized: The Parlor Reception of Musikdrama.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, Michael. 2017. “Energy Costs Compared.” New York Times, July 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schimel 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Schimel 2010; Sennett and Rendl 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sennett and Rendl 2015)
  • Three authors: (Grassly, Fraser, and Garnett 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Barik et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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