How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blumenthal, Dana. 2005. “Ecology. Interrelated Causes of Plant Invasion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5746): 243–244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, Andrea L., and Robert F. Siliciano. 2014. “HIV: Not-so-Innocent Bystanders.” Nature 505 (7484): 492–493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, Mildred K., Glenn McGee, and David Magnus. 2006. “Research Conduct. Lessons of the Stem Cell Scandal.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5761): 614–615.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gröblacher, Simon, Klemens Hammerer, Michael R. Vanner, and Markus Aspelmeyer. 2009. “Observation of Strong Coupling between a Micromechanical Resonator and an Optical Cavity Field.” Nature 460 (7256): 724–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kurrer, Karl-Eugen. 2016. Geschichte Der Baustatik. Berlin, Germany: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Munné, Antoni, Antoni Ginebreda, and Narcís Prat, eds. 2016. Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part II). Vol. 43. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ansari, Mohammad, Behram Khan, Mikel Luján, Christos Kotselidis, Chris Kirkham, and Ian Watson. 2010. “Improving Performance by Reducing Aborts in Hardware Transactional Memory.” In High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: 5th International Conference, HiPEAC 2010, Pisa, Italy, January 25-27, 2010. Proceedings, edited by Yale N. Patt, Pierfrancesco Foglia, Evelyn Duesterwald, Paolo Faraboschi, and Xavier Martorell, 35–49. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “19 Life-Saving Facts That Everyone Should Know.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Provisions of S. 821, a Bill To Provide for Authorization of Appropriations for the Federal Communications Commission. 115070. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beyer, Patrick D. 2010. “Authentic Leadership In-Extremis: A Study of Combat Leadership.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Reinhart, Mary K. 2010. “Kathryn Bertine and George Varhola Jr.” New York Times, November 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blumenthal 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Blumenthal 2005; Cox and Siliciano 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox and Siliciano 2014)
  • Three authors: (Cho, McGee, and Magnus 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gröblacher et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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