How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2002. “The Best of Both Worlds. Seattle.” Nature 417 (6889): 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clementz, Mark T., and Jacob O. Sewall. 2011. “Latitudinal Gradients in Greenhouse Seawater δ(18) O: Evidence from Eocene Sirenian Tooth Enamel.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6028): 455–458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freitas, Renata, Guangjun Zhang, and Martin J. Cohn. 2006. “Evidence That Mechanisms of Fin Development Evolved in the Midline of Early Vertebrates.” Nature 442 (7106): 1033–1037.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rea, N., P. Esposito, R. Turolla, G. L. Israel, S. Zane, L. Stella, S. Mereghetti, et al. 2010. “A Low-Magnetic-Field Soft Gamma Repeater.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6006): 944–946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen, Steen. 2005. Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jonker, Willem, and Milan Petković, eds. 2012. Secure Data Management: 9th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, August 27, 2012. Proceedings. Vol. 7482. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hirsch, Markus, Klaus Oppenauer, and Luigi del Re. 2010. “Dynamic Engine Emission Models.” In Automotive Model Predictive Control: Models, Methods and Applications, edited by Luigi del Re, Frank Allgöwer, Luigi Glielmo, Carlos Guardiola, and Ilya Kolmanovsky, 73–87. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “India’s Mangalyaan Successfully Enters Mars Orbit.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Financial Management Systems: OMB’s Financial Management Line of Business Initiative Continues but Future Success Remains Uncertain. GAO-09-328. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
HaMai, Truc. 2014. “The ‘Other’ Women: What about the Experiences of Women Faculty of Color in Community Colleges?” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maslin, Janet. 2017. “Prosecuting For-Profit Law Schools.” New York Times, October 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Clementz and Sewall 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clementz and Sewall 2011)
  • Three authors: (Freitas, Zhang, and Cohn 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rea et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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