How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conard, Nicholas J. 2009. “A Female Figurine from the Basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in Southwestern Germany.” Nature 459 (7244): 248–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medema, Jan Paul, and Louis Vermeulen. 2011. “Microenvironmental Regulation of Stem Cells in Intestinal Homeostasis and Cancer.” Nature 474 (7351): 318–326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otterbein, L. R., P. Graceffa, and R. Dominguez. 2001. “The Crystal Structure of Uncomplexed Actin in the ADP State.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5530): 708–711.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Anderson, Gregory G., Joseph J. Palermo, Joel D. Schilling, Robyn Roth, John Heuser, and Scott J. Hultgren. 2003. “Intracellular Bacterial Biofilm-like Pods in Urinary Tract Infections.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5629): 105–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1995. Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Petersen, Frank, and René Amstutz, eds. 2008. Natural Compounds as Drugs: Volume II. Vol. 66. Progress in Drug Research. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Inverardi, Paola. 2007. “Software of the Future Is the Future of Software?” In Trustworthy Global Computing: Second Symposium, TGC 2006, Lucca, Italy, November 7-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Ugo Montanari, Donald Sannella, and Roberto Bruni, 69–85. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “New Lizard Is A Dead Ringer For Its Cuban Cousin.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Flexibility Demonstration Programs: Education Needs to Better Target Program Information. GAO-03-691. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Litt, Dana. 2010. “Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Alcohol Use: The Role of Social Images, Social Norms, and Social Comparison.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Mandel, Emily. 2016. “Brave New World.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conard 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Conard 2009; Conard 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medema and Vermeulen 2011)
  • Three authors: (Otterbein, Graceffa, and Dominguez 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Anderson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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