How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hastings, Alan. 2003. “Metapopulation Persistence with Age-Dependent Disturbance or Succession.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5639): 1525–1526.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chakravarti, Aravinda, and Peter Little. 2003. “Nature, Nurture and Human Disease.” Nature 421 (6921): 412–414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burns, Peter C., Rodney C. Ewing, and Alexandra Navrotsky. 2012. “Nuclear Fuel in a Reactor Accident.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6073): 1184–1188.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hepting, M., L. Chaix, E. W. Huang, R. Fumagalli, Y. Y. Peng, B. Moritz, K. Kummer, et al. 2018. “Three-Dimensional Collective Charge Excitations in Electron-Doped Copper Oxide Superconductors.” Nature 563 (7731): 374–378.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, Marie. 2006. Understanding Diabetes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hofrichter, Martin, ed. 2011. Industrial Applications. second. Vol. 10. The Mycota, A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T., and Erko Stackebrandt. 2013. “Defining Taxonomic Ranks.” In The Prokaryotes: Prokaryotic Biology and Symbiotic Associations, edited by Eugene Rosenberg, Edward F. DeLong, Stephen Lory, Erko Stackebrandt, and Fabiano Thompson, 229–254. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2015. “The Mental Capacity To Recognize Language Is Not Unique To Humans.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Intercity Passenger Rail: Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Amtrak’s Long-Term Viability. RCED-95-71. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brooks, Charles E. 2010. “Action Research: Interventions for Helping Leaders Use Groups to Affect Conflict between Workforce Generations.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. 2017. “What He Said She Said, and a Disquisition About Disclosures.” New York Times, March 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hastings 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hastings 2003; Chakravarti and Little 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chakravarti and Little 2003)
  • Three authors: (Burns, Ewing, and Navrotsky 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hepting et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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