How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thor, Stefan. 2013. “Neuroscience: Stem Cells in Multiple Time Zones.” Nature 498 (7455): 441–443.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sijen, Titia, and Ronald H. A. Plasterk. 2003. “Transposon Silencing in the Caenorhabditis Elegans Germ Line by Natural RNAi.” Nature 426 (6964): 310–314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vajda, V., J. I. Raine, and C. J. Hollis. 2001. “Indication of Global Deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary by New Zealand Fern Spike.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5547): 1700–1702.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Young, John, Simon M. Walker, Richard J. Bomphrey, Graham K. Taylor, and Adrian L. R. Thomas. 2009. “Details of Insect Wing Design and Deformation Enhance Aerodynamic Function and Flight Efficiency.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5947): 1549–1552.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiessen, Heiner. 1996. Measuring the Real World. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Gigengack, Fabian. 2015. Motion Correction in Thoracic Positron Emission Tomography. Edited by Xiaoyi Jiang, Mohammad Dawood, and Klaus P. Schäfers. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Andes, David R., and William E. Dismukes. 2011. “Azoles.” In Essentials of Clinical Mycology, edited by Carol A. Kauffman, Peter G. Pappas, Jack D. Sobel, and William E. Dismukes, 61–93. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Tooth Enamel Could Have Originated On Prehistoric Fish Scales.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Greater Coordination and a More Effective Policy Needed for International Telecommunications Facilities. CED-78-87. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choi, Kyle Kyungsik. 2010. “Conspiracy and Alternative Crimes in the Military Commissions Act of 2009: Is There a Way Out?” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isbister, Mary. 2011. “The Joy of Making Things.” New York Times, September 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thor 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Thor 2013; Sijen and Plasterk 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sijen and Plasterk 2003)
  • Three authors: (Vajda, Raine, and Hollis 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Young et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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