How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wigley, T. M. L. 2006. “A Combined Mitigation/Geoengineering Approach to Climate Stabilization.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5798): 452–454.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver, Andrew J., and Claude Hillaire-Marcel. 2004. “Ocean Science. Global Warming and the next Ice Age.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5669): 400–402.
A journal article with 3 authors
Camilleri, Elizabeth, Peter P. Rohde, and Jason Twamley. 2014. “Quantum Walks with Tuneable Self-Avoidance in One Dimension.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4791.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Woodcroft, Ben J., Caitlin M. Singleton, Joel A. Boyd, Paul N. Evans, Joanne B. Emerson, Ahmed A. F. Zayed, Robert D. Hoelzle, et al. 2018. “Genome-Centric View of Carbon Processing in Thawing Permafrost.” Nature 560 (7716): 49–54.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zeng, Kai, Wenjing Lou, and Ming Li. 2011. Multihop Wireless Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gioeli, Daniel, ed. 2011. Targeted Therapies: Mechanisms of Resistance. Molecular and Translational Medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakravarthy, Sharma, and Qingchun Jiang. 2009. “LITERATURE REVIEW.” In Stream Data Processing: A Quality of Service Perspective: Modeling, Scheduling, Load Shedding, and Complex Event Processing, edited by Sharma Chakravarthy, 33–48. Advances in Database Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “The 3D Printer So Big It Can Make Houses.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Information Technology: OMB and Department of Homeland Security Investment Reviews. GAO-04-323. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ionedes, Nancy Joanna. 2008. “An Exploration of Social Interest Therapy as a Treatment for Depression in the Elderly.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, Rick. 2015. “An Undertaker’s Discovery Turns a Death Into a Murder Case.” New York Times, December 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wigley 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Wigley 2006; Weaver and Hillaire-Marcel 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weaver and Hillaire-Marcel 2004)
  • Three authors: (Camilleri, Rohde, and Twamley 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Woodcroft et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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