How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsapatsis, Michael. 2011. “Materials Science. Toward High-Throughput Zeolite Membranes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6057): 767–768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Renear, Allen H., and Carole L. Palmer. 2009. “Strategic Reading, Ontologies, and the Future of Scientific Publishing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5942): 828–832.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niu, Mang, Daojian Cheng, and Dapeng Cao. 2014. “SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 Heterojunctions: Promising TiO2-Based Photocatalysts under Visible Light.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4810.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fang, J., A. Chen, C. Peng, S. Zhao, and L. Ci. 2001. “Changes in Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in China between 1949 and 1998.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5525): 2320–2322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, Theodore, and Seth Grossman. 2007. Overcoming Resistant Personality Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fisher, Michael, Fariba Sadri, and Michael Thielscher, eds. 2009. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 9th International Workshop, CLIMA IX, Dresden, Germany, September 29-30, 2008. Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Vol. 5405. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Emani, Chandrakanth. 2014. “The Effects of Transgenic Crops on Non-Target Organisms.” In Biotechnology and Biodiversity, edited by M. R. Ahuja and K. G. Ramawat, 59–66. Sustainable Development and Biodiversity. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Rats Recognize Expressions Of Pain.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. GAO-05-861T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Willis, Tasha Yvette. 2012. “Rare but There: An Intersectional Exploration of the Experiences and Outcomes of Black Women Who Studied Abroad through Community College Programs.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. “Justices Raise Doubts on Campaign Finance Law.” New York Times, April 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tsapatsis 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Tsapatsis 2011; Renear and Palmer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Renear and Palmer 2009)
  • Three authors: (Niu, Cheng, and Cao 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

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