How to format your references using the Journal of Postcolonial Writing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Postcolonial Writing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson, John N. 2006. “Ecology. Mutualistic Webs of Species.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5772): 372–373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Woodroffe, Rosie, and Stephen M. Redpath. 2015. “CONSERVATION. When the Hunter Becomes the Hunted.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6241): 1312–1314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cobaleda, César, Wolfram Jochum, and Meinrad Busslinger. 2007. “Conversion of Mature B Cells into T Cells by Dedifferentiation to Uncommitted Progenitors.” Nature 449 (7161): 473–477.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Balasubramanian, Balamurugan, Pinaki Mukherjee, Ralph Skomski, Priyanka Manchanda, Bhaskar Das, and David J. Sellmyer. 2014. “Magnetic Nanostructuring and Overcoming Brown’s Paradox to Realize Extraordinary High-Temperature Energy Products.” Scientific Reports 4 (September): 6265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reid, Gavin. 2011. Dyslexia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mimura, Nobuo, ed. 2008. Asia-Pacific Coasts and Their Management: States of Environment. Vol. 11. Coastal Systems and Continental Margins. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Conceição, Luís, and Marilia Curado. 2013. “Modelling Mobility Based on Human Behaviour in Disaster Areas.” In Wired/Wireless Internet Communication: 11th International Conference, WWIC 2013, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 5-7, 2013. Proceedings, edited by Vassilis Tsaoussidis, Andreas J. Kassler, Yevgeni Koucheryavy, and Abdelhamid Mellouk, 56–69. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Postcolonial Writing.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Planet Earth II: Why More Than 200,000 Saiga Antelopes Died In Just Days.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. NOAA Satellites. AIMD-96-141R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kidder, Elizabeth O. 2014. “Self-Administered HPV Testing as a Cervical Cancer Screening Option: Exploring the Perspectives of Hispanic and Arab Women in the United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, William. 2014. “In Colombia, an Election May Turn on a Dirty War.” New York Times, May 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thompson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson 2006; Woodroffe and Redpath 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Woodroffe and Redpath 2015)
  • Three authors: (Cobaleda, Jochum, and Busslinger 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Balasubramanian et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Postcolonial Writing
ISSN (print)1744-9855
ISSN (online)1744-9863
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory

Other styles