How to format your references using the Traffic citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traffic. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sapolsky RM. Behavior. Sympathy for the CEO. Science 2011;333:293–294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parren PWHI, Burton DR. Immunology. Two-in-one designer antibodies. Science 2009;323:1567–1568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang C-S, Shemorry A, Varshavsky A. N-terminal acetylation of cellular proteins creates specific degradation signals. Science 2010;327:973–977.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Sun L, Zhou X, Huang W, Liu X, Yan H, Xie Z, Wu Z, Zhao S, Da Shao, Yang W. Preliminary evidence for a 1000-year-old tsunami in the South China Sea. Sci Rep 2013;3:1655.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.
An edited book
Jochem E, editor. Improving the Efficiency of R&D and the Market Diffusion of Energy Technologies. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Fitzgerald JB, George J, Christenson LK. Non-coding RNA in Ovarian Development and Disease. In: Wilhelm D, Bernard P, editors. Non-coding RNA and the Reproductive System. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. p. 79–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traffic.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Watch Two Rockets Launch, Hover, And Gently Land [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: The Small Business Technology Transfer Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arnold DM. An Examination of Job Satisfaction Among Full-Time Faculty in a Selected Mississippi Community College. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. The Olympians’ Housemother. New York Times. 2012;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTraffic
ISSN (print)1398-9219
ISSN (online)1600-0854
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology
Structural Biology

Other styles