How to format your references using the Irrigation Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irrigation Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M (2010) Structural biology: The gatekeepers revealed. Nature 465:823–826
A journal article with 2 authors
Schadt CW, Rosling A (2015) FUNGAL BIOGEOGRAPHY. Comment on “Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.” Science 348:1438
A journal article with 3 authors
Vais H, Foskett JK, Mak D-OD (2011) InsP3R channel gating altered by clustering? Nature 478:E1-2; discussion E2-3
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Qiu F, Hu M, Tang B, et al (2013) Annexin V-TRAIL fusion protein is a more sensitive and potent apoptotic inducer for cancer therapy. Sci Rep 3:3565

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee KB (2011) Principles of Microelectromechanical Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Zhong Z (ed) (2013) Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2012: Volume 2. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang M, Yin H (2016) Automatic Generation of Vulnerability-Specific Patches for Preventing Component Hijacking Attacks. In: Yin H (ed) Android Application Security: A Semantics and Context-Aware Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irrigation Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Earth’s First Land Vertebrates Used Their Lungs to Detect Sounds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) National Transportation Safety Board: Progress Made, Yet Management Practices, Investigation Priorities, and Training Center Use Should Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker M (2009) Industry - higher education partnerships: A case study analysis of learning together. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Supreme Court Limits Lawsuits by Shareholders. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker 2010; Schadt and Rosling 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schadt and Rosling 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Qiu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrrigation Science
AbbreviationIrrig. Sci.
ISSN (print)0342-7188
ISSN (online)1432-1319
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles