How to format your references using the Irrigation Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irrigation Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Humphries C (2013) Latency: A sleeping giant. Nature 502:S14-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Pitnick S, Pfennig DW (2014) Evolutionary biology: Brotherly love benefits females. Nature 505:626–627
A journal article with 3 authors
Samuelsson A, Towers TL, Ravetch JV (2001) Anti-inflammatory activity of IVIG mediated through the inhibitory Fc receptor. Science 291:484–486
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fasching C, Behounek B, Singer GA, Battin TJ (2014) Microbial degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic matter and potential consequences for carbon cycling in brown-water streams. Sci Rep 4:4981

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kay J, Tasman A (2006) Essentials of Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Erdemir U, Yildiz E (eds) (2016) Esthetic and Functional Management of Diastema: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Gustin JL, Settles AM (2015) Seed Phenomics. In: Fritsche-Neto R, Borém A (eds) Phenomics: How Next-Generation Phenotyping is Revolutionizing Plant Breeding. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 67–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irrigation Science.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Synthetic Blood Vessels Developed That Can Grow With Age. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Department of Education: Key Aspects of the Federal Direct Loan Program’s Cost Estimates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armstrong-Romero KA (2017) Cultural influences and the impact of workplace bullying. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Butler P (2011) Jurors Need to Know That They Can Say No. New York Times A39

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Humphries 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Humphries 2013; Pitnick and Pfennig 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pitnick and Pfennig 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Fasching et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrrigation Science
AbbreviationIrrig. Sci.
ISSN (print)0342-7188
ISSN (online)1432-1319
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles