How to format your references using the Irrigation Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irrigation Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cepko C (2010) Neuroscience. Seeing the light of day. Science 329:403–404
A journal article with 2 authors
Kamiyama D, Chiba A (2009) Endogenous activation patterns of Cdc42 GTPase within Drosophila embryos. Science 324:1338–1340
A journal article with 3 authors
Schubert G, Russell CT, Moore WB (2000) Timing of the Martian dynamo. Nature 408:666–667
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Voznesenskaya EV, Franceschi VR, Kiirats O, et al (2001) Kranz anatomy is not essential for terrestrial C4 plant photosynthesis. Nature 414:543–546

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fanchi JR (2006) Math Refresher for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sanford JF (2012) Localization in Wireless Networks: Foundations and Applications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Lee DS, Lee KC, Jo NY (2013) A Creative Generation Task Under Stress: Comparison of a Stress Group with a Non-stress Group. In: Lee KC (ed) Digital Creativity: Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. Springer, New York, NY, pp 47–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irrigation Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 5 Diseases You Should Be More Afraid Of Than Ebola. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Federal Student Aid: Additional Management Improvements Would Clarify Strategic Direction and Enhance Accountability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGaughey KM (2017) Textural juxtaposition: Representing the natural and the human in Elements. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) Bank Hires Tech Expert to Court Traditional Firms. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cepko 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kamiyama and Chiba 2009; Cepko 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kamiyama and Chiba 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Voznesenskaya et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrrigation Science
AbbreviationIrrig. Sci.
ISSN (print)0342-7188
ISSN (online)1432-1319
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles