How to format your references using the Irrigation Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irrigation Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hubler GK (2000) Fluff balls of fire. Nature 403:487–488
A journal article with 2 authors
Berndt JD, Moon RT (2013) Cell biology. Making a point with Wnt signals. Science 339:1388–1389
A journal article with 3 authors
Keppler H, Wiedenbeck M, Shcheka SS (2003) Carbon solubility in olivine and the mode of carbon storage in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 424:414–416
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Solli DR, Ropers C, Koonath P, Jalali B (2007) Optical rogue waves. Nature 450:1054–1057

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saunders A, Allen L (2010) Credit Risk Management in and Out of the Financial Crisis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schwoerer H, Beleites B, Magill J (eds) (2006) Lasers and Nuclei: Applications of Ultrahigh Intensity Lasers in Nuclear Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Alanyalı SD (2013) Prognostic and Predictive Factors. In: Haydaroglu A, Ozyigit G (eds) Principles and Practice of Modern Radiotherapy Techniques in Breast Cancer. Springer, New York, NY, pp 35–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irrigation Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Happy News! Masturbation Actually Has Health Benefits. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) DOD Instruction 5000.5X, Standard Instruction Set Architectures for Embedded Computers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutsell JD (2009) School board members’ perception on their roles and responsibilities in developing policy that affects student achievement. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J, Dolnick S (2014) Slush and Short Sleeves. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hubler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hubler 2000; Berndt and Moon 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berndt and Moon 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Solli et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrrigation Science
AbbreviationIrrig. Sci.
ISSN (print)0342-7188
ISSN (online)1432-1319
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles