How to format your references using the Irrigation Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irrigation Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp S (2013) Evolution. What, where, and when? Science 341:1182–1184
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferraro PJ, Kiss A (2002) Ecology. Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science 298:1718–1719
A journal article with 3 authors
Palter JB, Lozier MS, Barber RT (2005) The effect of advection on the nutrient reservoir in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Nature 437:687–692
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Filatov DA, Monéger F, Negrutiu I, Charlesworth D (2000) Low variability in a Y-linked plant gene and its implications for Y-chromosome evolution. Nature 404:388–390

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beckers B, Beckers P (2014) Reconciliation of Geometry and Perception in Radiation Physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Trovalusci P (ed) (2016) Materials with Internal Structure: Multiscale and Multifield Modeling and Simulation. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Faure V, Kawai Y (2016) Heat and salt budgets of the mixed layer around the Subarctic Front of the North Pacific Ocean. In: Nakamura H, Isobe A, Minobe S, et al. (eds) “Hot Spots” in the Climate System: New Developments in the Extratropical Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Research. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 59–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irrigation Science.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) All-Female Hybrid Salamanders Take Genes From Males Of Three Different Species To Breed. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) General Aviation: Security Assessments at Selected Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hasbini MA (2017) The Great Recession of 2007 and the Housing Market Crash: Why Did So Many Builders Fail? Lessons for the Local Homebuilding Industry. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S (2015) Encountering Art at Every Bend. New York Times CT9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ferraro and Kiss 2002; Knapp 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferraro and Kiss 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Filatov et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleIrrigation Science
AbbreviationIrrig. Sci.
ISSN (print)0342-7188
ISSN (online)1432-1319
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science
Water Science and Technology

Other styles