How to format your references using the Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lutkenhaus J 2008 Biochemistry. Tinkering with acellular division Science 320 755–6
A journal article with 2 authors
Matouschek A and Finley D 2012 Cell biology. An ancient portal to proteolysis Science 337 813–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Devincre B, Hoc T and Kubin L 2008 Dislocation mean free paths and strain hardening of crystals Science 320 1745–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hindupur S K, Colombi M, Fuhs S R, Matter M S, Guri Y, Adam K, Cornu M, Piscuoglio S, Ng C K Y, Betz C, Liko D, Quagliata L, Moes S, Jenoe P, Terracciano L M, Heim M H, Hunter T and Hall M N 2018 The protein histidine phosphatase LHPP is a tumour suppressor Nature 555 678–82

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chartered Institute of Building 2014 Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development (Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Mana N, Schwenker F and Trentin E 2012 Artificial Neural Networks in Pattern Recognition: 5th INNS IAPR TC 3 GIRPR Workshop, ANNPR 2012, Trento, Italy, September 17-19, 2012. Proceedings vol 7477 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Heinzel A and König U 2009 Nanotechnology for Fuel Cells Nanostructured Materials for Electrochemical Energy Production and Storage Nanostructure Science and Technology ed E R Leite (Boston, MA: Springer US) pp 151–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties.

Blog post
Andrews R 2016 New Form Of Life In Human Saliva Is A Bacterial Parasite IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2000 Gender Equity: Men’s and Women’s Participation in Higher Education (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clyde K M 2012 Instructors’ Perceptions of the National Association of Schools of Music Influence on the Development of Undergraduate Applied Percussion Curricula Doctoral dissertation (Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear M D and Nixon R 2017 Vetting Is Little Changed Since Calls for Travel Ban New York Times A14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties
AbbreviationSurf. Topogr.
ISSN (online)2051-672X

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