How to format your references using the Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christofori G 2006 New signals from the invasive front Nature 441 444–50
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang T M and Hilgemann D W 2004 Multiple transport modes of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger Nature 427 544–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Dai X, Chen A and Bai Z 2014 Integrative investigation on breast cancer in ER, PR and HER2-defined subgroups using mRNA and miRNA expression profiling Sci. Rep. 4 6566
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Worobey M, Telfer P, Souquière S, Hunter M, Coleman C A, Metzger M J, Reed P, Makuwa M, Hearn G, Honarvar S, Roques P, Apetrei C, Kazanji M and Marx P A 2010 Island biogeography reveals the deep history of SIV Science 329 1487

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Unhelkar B 2005 Verification and Validation for Quality of UML 2.0 Models (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Zabar S, Kachur E, Kalet A and Hanley K 2013 Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: 10 Steps to Planning and Implementing OSCEs and Other Standardized Patient Exercises (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Arslan-Alaton I and Olmez-Hanci T 2012 Advanced Oxidation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds: Review on Photo-Fenton Treatment of Alkylphenols and Bisphenol A Green Technologies for Wastewater Treatment: Energy Recovery and Emerging Compounds Removal SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science ed G Lofrano (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 59–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 “Gentle” Microscope Reveals 3D Action Shots Of Living Organisms IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1972 Follow-up Review on Assistance to War Victims in Vietnam (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Douet C 2010 The influence of an overseas trip to France on high school students studying French, four years after graduation Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2002 A Bar (Yes, a Bar) Helps Revive a Neighborhood New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties
AbbreviationSurf. Topogr.
ISSN (online)2051-672X

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