How to format your references using the Irish Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Alverson K. Watching over the world’s oceans. Nature. 2005;434:19–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Alexander T, Natarajan P. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion. Science. 2014;345:1330–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cacciuto A, Auer S, Frenkel D. Onset of heterogeneous crystal nucleation in colloidal suspensions. Nature. 2004;428:404–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chiritescu C, Cahill DG, Nguyen N, Johnson D, Bodapati A, Keblinski P, et al. Ultralow thermal conductivity in disordered, layered WSe2 crystals. Science. 2007;315:351–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ehrlich E, Fanelli D. The Financial Services Marketing Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Toponogov VA. Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces: A Concise Guide. Rovenski VY, editor. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bettinson V. Surviving Times of Austerity: Preserving the Specialist Domestic Violence Court Provision. In: Hilder S, Bettinson V, editors. Domestic Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Protection, Prevention and Intervention. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 81–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Why Do You Need Permission To Land On The Moon? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Congress Faces Critical Decisions in Developing a National Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Apr. Report No.: GAO-02-522T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Escamilla D. How performance following the implementation of a new structure affects employee engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Neuman W. Colombia Military Accused of Deception on Deaths. New York Times. 2015 Jun 24;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationIr. Vet. J.
ISSN (online)2046-0481
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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