How to format your references using the Irish Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jensen MH. Obituary: Per Bak (1947-2002). Nature. 2002;420:284.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Karakas E, Furukawa H. Crystal structure of a heterotetrameric NMDA receptor ion channel. Science. 2014;344:992–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Belonoshko AB, Ahuja R, Johansson B. Stability of the body-centred-cubic phase of iron in the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2003;424:1032–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Johnson DM, Liebhold AM, Tobin PC, Bjørnstad ON. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth. Nature. 2006;444:361–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Determining the Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Moreno González C, Madriz Aguilar JE, Reyes Barrera LM, editors. Accelerated Cosmic Expansion: Proceedings of the Fourth International Meeting on Gravitation and Cosmology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rawski M, Tomaszewicz P, Borowik G, Łuba T. 5 Logic Synthesis Method of Digital Circuits Designed for Implementation with Embedded Memory Blocks of FPGAs. In: Adamski M, Barkalov A, Węgrzyn M, editors. Design of Digital Systems and Devices. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 121–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Scientists Seek Approval To Genetically Modify Human Embryos. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NSF Review: Review Process for the National Science Foundation’s Science and Engineering Pipeline Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-92-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gilmore KD. With their heads in the lion’s mouth: Exploring the novels of Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison through social contract theory [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kolomatsky M. Where It’s Good to Have Four Legs. New York Times. 2017 Sep 21;RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationIr. Vet. J.
ISSN (online)2046-0481
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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