How to format your references using the Biosystems Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosystems Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beard, C. (2002). Paleontology. East of Eden at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5562), 2028–2029.
A journal article with 2 authors
Young, I. M., & Crawford, J. W. (2004). Interactions and self-organization in the soil-microbe complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1634–1637.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaplan, C. D., Laprade, L., & Winston, F. (2003). Transcription elongation factors repress transcription initiation from cryptic sites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5636), 1096–1099.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Weinrauch, Y., Drujan, D., Shapiro, S. D., Weiss, J., & Zychlinsky, A. (2002). Neutrophil elastase targets virulence factors of enterobacteria. Nature, 417(6884), 91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burkinshaw, S. M. (2016). Physico-chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Babashah, S. (Ed.). (2015). Cancer Stem Cells: Emerging Concepts and Future Perspectives in Translational Oncology (1st ed. 2015). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
van de Pol, L. A., van der Flier, W. M., & Scheltens, P. (2010). Clinical Evaluation and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia. In G. J. Biessels & J. A. Luchsinger (Eds.), Diabetes and the Brain (pp. 103–127). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosystems Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 2). It’s Official: One Joint Of Cannabis Makes You Lazy … But Only In The Short Term. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Telecommunications: 1991 Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services (RCED-91-195). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kulavuz-Onal, D. (2013). English Language Teachers’ Learning to Teach with Technology through Participation in an Online Community of Practice: A Netnography of Webheads in Action [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, February 12). World Briefing | Europe: Georgia: F.B.I Rules Premier’s Death Was Accidental. New York Times, A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beard, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Beard, 2002; Young & Crawford, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Young & Crawford, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Kaplan et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Weinrauch et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosystems Engineering
AbbreviationBiosyst. Eng.
ISSN (print)1537-5110
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Animal Science and Zoology
Food Science
Soil Science
Control and Systems Engineering

Other styles