How to format your references using the Biosystems Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosystems Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neu, U. (2008). Is recent major hurricane activity normal? Nature, 451(7181), E5; discussion E6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jayaraman, K. S., & Weis, P. (2001). Fallout from terrorism hits summits on developing world. Nature, 413(6858), 759.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, D., Lin, B.-J., & Lee, A. K. (2012). Hippocampal place fields emerge upon single-cell manipulation of excitability during behavior. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6096), 849–853.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, S., Xu, J., Wang, W., Wang, G.-J. N., Rastak, R., Molina-Lopez, F., … Bao, Z. (2018). Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature, 555(7694), 83–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Straus, S. E., & Sackett, D. L. (2013). Mentorship in Academic Medicine. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rutz, D., & Janssen, R. (Eds.). (2014). Socio-Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Production. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kappos, A. J., Goutzika, E. D., Stefanidou, S. P., & Sextos, A. G. (2011). Problems in Pushover Analysis of Bridges Sensitive to Torsion. In M. Papadrakakis, M. Fragiadakis, & N. D. Lagaros (Eds.), Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering (pp. 99–122). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosystems Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 23). Galaxy Cluster 9.9 Billion Light Years Away Confirmed. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Within-School Discrimination: Inadequate Title VI Enforcement by Education’s Office for Civil Rights (No. T-HRD-91-17). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gates, D. A. (2017). Best Practices and Strategies for Financial Literacy in Faith-Based Organizations (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M. (2017, July 1). Asked for Data on Voters, States Give Trump Panel a Bipartisan ‘No.’ New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neu, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Jayaraman & Weis, 2001; Neu, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jayaraman & Weis, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Lee, Lin, & Lee, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosystems Engineering
AbbreviationBiosyst. Eng.
ISSN (print)1537-5110
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Animal Science and Zoology
Food Science
Soil Science
Control and Systems Engineering

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