How to format your references using the Biosystems Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biosystems Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). Charm, not tact, aided pioneer in fight for physics. Nature, 403(6770), 586–587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Van de Walle, C. G., & Neugebauer, J. (2003). Universal alignment of hydrogen levels in semiconductors, insulators and solutions. Nature, 423(6940), 626–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rossi, D. J., Oshima, T., & Attwell, D. (2000). Glutamate release in severe brain ischaemia is mainly by reversed uptake. Nature, 403(6767), 316–321.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Maizel, A., Busch, M. A., Tanahashi, T., Perkovic, J., Kato, M., Hasebe, M., & Weigel, D. (2005). The floral regulator LEAFY evolves by substitutions in the DNA binding domain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5719), 260–263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abulencia, J. P., & Theodore, L. (2015). Open-Ended Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jiang, B., & Yao, X. (Eds.). (2010). Geospatial Analysis and Modelling of Urban Structure and Dynamics (Vol. 99). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Mileff, P., & Dudra, J. (2014). Advanced 2D Rasterization on Modern CPUs. In G. Bognár & T. Tóth (Eds.), Applied Information Science, Engineering and Technology: Selected Topics from the Field of Production Information Engineering and IT for Manufacturing: Theory and Practice (pp. 63–79). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biosystems Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 4). Researchers Identify New Possible Supernova Trigger. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). School Dropouts: The Extent and Nature of the Problem (HRD-86-106BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weissflug, K. G. (2009). Effects of Positive Behavior Support Programs on Student Behaviors [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2005, February 5). Russian Legislators Vote to Condemn Anti-Semitism. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2000; Van de Walle & Neugebauer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Van de Walle & Neugebauer, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Rossi et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Maizel et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiosystems Engineering
AbbreviationBiosyst. Eng.
ISSN (print)1537-5110
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Animal Science and Zoology
Food Science
Soil Science
Control and Systems Engineering

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