How to format your references using the Inverse Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cao Y C 2011 Materials science. Impurities enhance semiconductor nanocrystal performance Science 332 48–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Boettiger A N and Levine M 2009 Synchronous and stochastic patterns of gene activation in the Drosophila embryo Science 325 471–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnqvist G, Jones T M and Elgar M A 2003 Insect behaviour: reversal of sex roles in nuptial feeding Nature 424 387
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Perez-Fons L, Wells T, Corol D I, Ward J L, Gerrish C, Beale M H, Seymour G B, Bramley P M and Fraser P D 2014 A genome-wide metabolomic resource for tomato fruit from Solanum pennellii Sci. Rep. 4 3859

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gladon R J, Graves W R and Kelly J M 2011 Getting Published in the Life Sciences (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Banaszkiewicz P A and Kader D F 2014 Classic Papers in Orthopaedics (London: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Håkanson L and Bryhn A C 2008 Nutrients and Representativity of Data Tools and Criteria for Sustainable Coastal Ecosystem Management: Examples from the Baltic Sea and Other Aquatic Systems Environmental Science and Engineering Subseries: Environmental Science ed A C Bryhn (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 59–123

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Astronomers Spot Incredibly Rare Quasar Quartet IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988 Civil Space: NASA’s Strategic Planning Process (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim M 2010 Adult ESL Korean readers’ responses about their reading in L1 Korean and L2 English Doctoral dissertation (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S 2016 Can She Keep You Safe? New York Times SR6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems
AbbreviationInverse Probl.
ISSN (print)0266-5611
ISSN (online)1361-6420
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles