How to format your references using the Inverse Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous P 2001 Millennium Dome sees signs of a Wellcome break Nature 412 258
A journal article with 2 authors
Dasgupta P and Ramanathan V 2014 Environment and development. Pursuit of the common good Science 345 1457–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilmore C K, McCarthy S E and Spelke E S 2007 Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction Nature 447 589–91
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Varpula A, Laakso S J, Havia T, Kyynäräinen J and Prunnila M 2014 Harvesting vibrational energy using material work functions Sci. Rep. 4 6799

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Srivastava S P 2014 Developments in Lubricant Technology (Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Galloway N R 2016 Common Eye Diseases and their Management ed W M K Amoaku, P H Galloway and A C Browning (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Baste J, Paul C, Sau I and Scornavacca C 2016 Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 11th International Conference, AAIM 2016, Bergamo, Italy, July 18-20, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed R Dondi, G Fertin and G Mauri (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 53–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 How To Light A Candle With Smoke IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2001 FTS 2001 Implementation Issues (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez D 2017 Numerical Simulation of a Flowfield Around a Hypersonic Missile with Lateral Jets Doctoral dissertation (Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum M M 2017 Inaugural All Its Own Brings Astonishment and Awe to Television New York Times A22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems
AbbreviationInverse Probl.
ISSN (print)0266-5611
ISSN (online)1361-6420
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles