How to format your references using the Inverse Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hurles M 2002 Are 100,000 “SNPs” useless? Science 298 1509; author reply 1509
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayden L A and Watson E B 2007 A diffusion mechanism for core-mantle interaction Nature 450 709–11
A journal article with 3 authors
Enquist B J, Haskell J P and Tiffney B H 2002 General patterns of taxonomic and biomass partitioning in extant and fossil plant communities Nature 419 610–3
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Plummer K E, Bearhop S, Leech D I, Chamberlain D E and Blount J D 2013 Winter food provisioning reduces future breeding performance in a wild bird Sci. Rep. 3 2002

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French M, Szepesvári C and Rogers E 2005 Performance of Nonlinear Approximate Adaptive Controllers (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Leong S P L, Kitagawa Y and Kitajima M 2005 Selective Sentinel Lymphadenectomy for Human Solid Cancer vol 127 (Boston, MA: Springer US)
A chapter in an edited book
Christinat Y and Moret B M E 2012 A Transcript Perspective on Evolution Bioinformatics Research and Applications: 8th International Symposium, ISBRA 2012, Dallas, TX, USA, May 21-23, 2012. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed L Bleris, I Măndoiu, R Schwartz and J Wang (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 48–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems.

Blog post
Davis J 2017 The Majority Of Europeans Say They Are Already Feeling The Impact Of Climate Change IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1989 Communications: Mobile Subscriber Equipment Testing Issues and Army Improvement Plan (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones L J 2017 From Corbin and Hillman to Dionysos: The Partial Unveiling of Psyche’s Stage Doctoral dissertation (Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B 2016 They’re First-Time Rivals. Their Mothers? Close as Longtime Friends New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems
AbbreviationInverse Probl.
ISSN (print)0266-5611
ISSN (online)1361-6420
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles