How to format your references using the Inverse Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E 2002 Safety panel backs principle of gene-therapy trials Nature 420 595
A journal article with 2 authors
Kodama R and Fast-Ignitor Consortium 2002 Fast heating scalable to laser fusion ignition Nature 418 933–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Suzuki H, Imura J-I and Aihara K 2013 Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals Sci. Rep. 3 1127
A journal article with 99 or more authors
El Goresy A, Chen M, Dubrovinsky L, Gillet P and Graup G 2001 An ultradense polymorph of rutile with seven-coordinated titanium from the Ries crater Science 293 1467–70

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith R A 2010 Virgil (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell)
An edited book
Moisan M 2012 Physics of Collisional Plasmas: Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges ed J Pelletier (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Garza Castañón L E, Guillén D R and Morales-Menendez R 2011 Fault Diagnosis in Power Networks with Hybrid Bayesian Networks and Wavelets Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence: 24th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2011, Syracuse, NY, USA, June 28 – July 1, 2011, Proceedings, Part I Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed K G Mehrotra, C K Mohan, J C Oh, P K Varshney and M Ali (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 29–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J 2016 New Metal Alloy Four Times Stronger Than Titanium Could Revolutionize Prosthetics IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 VBA Information Technology Investment (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cisewski J 2012 Generalized fiducial inference for mixed linear models Doctoral dissertation (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K 2002 It’s Still Audrey’s College, Even If Her Name Is Gone New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems
AbbreviationInverse Probl.
ISSN (print)0266-5611
ISSN (online)1361-6420
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles