How to format your references using the Inverse Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook E J 2005 Atmospheric science. Tiny bubbles tell all Science 310 1285–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Sawamiphak S and Stainier D Y R 2014 Developmental biology: It takes muscle to make blood cells Nature 512 257–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Ash C, Foley J and Pennisi E 2008 Microbial ecology. Lost in microbial space. Special section introduction Science 320 1027
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Verhaar A P, Hoekstra E, Tjon A S W, Utomo W K, Deuring J J, Bakker E R M, Muncan V and Peppelenbosch M P 2014 Dichotomal effect of space flight-associated microgravity on stress-activated protein kinases in innate immunity Sci. Rep. 4 5468

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sizer A, Balachandar C, Biswas N, Foon R, Griffiths A, Hodgett S, Sahu B and Underwood M 2016 Part 2 MRCOG: Single Best Answer Questions (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Leibe B, Matas J, Sebe N and Welling M 2016 Computer Vision – ECCV 2016: 14th European Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 11–14, 2016, Proceedings, Part VII vol 9911 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Le-Klähn D-T 2016 Sustainable Tourist Mobility: Implications for Urban Destination Management Sustainable Mobility in Metropolitan Regions: Insights from Interdisciplinary Research for Practice Application ed G Wulfhorst and S Klug (Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden) pp 55–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Deadly Gamma-Ray Burst Could Have Triggered A Mass Extinction On Earth IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1975 Management of the Community Action Against Addiction Program in Cleveland, Ohio (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allyasin F 2010 Low-cost frequency-domain methods of ruby fluorescence lifetime measurements Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Appelbaum B and Kelly K 2017 Trump Is Said to Pick 2 To Serve on Fed Board New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems
AbbreviationInverse Probl.
ISSN (print)0266-5611
ISSN (online)1361-6420
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles