How to format your references using the Inverse Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inverse Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thorpe R S 2005 Ecology. Population evolution and island biogeography Science 310 1778–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Saltiel A R and Kahn C R 2001 Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism Nature 414 799–806
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao G, Guo X and Goff S P 2002 Inhibition of retroviral RNA production by ZAP, a CCCH-type zinc finger protein Science 297 1703–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Katsanis N, Ansley S J, Badano J L, Eichers E R, Lewis R A, Hoskins B E, Scambler P J, Davidson W S, Beales P L and Lupski J R 2001 Triallelic inheritance in Bardet-Biedl syndrome, a Mendelian recessive disorder Science 293 2256–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulman F Y 2016 Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Luna-Elizarrarás M E 2015 Bicomplex Holomorphic Functions: The Algebra, Geometry and Analysis of Bicomplex Numbers ed M Shapiro, D C Struppa and A Vajiac (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Ferran N and Virkus S 2011 Information-Related Competencies for Teachers and Students in an E-Learning Environment Content Management for E-Learning ed N F Ferrer and J M Alfonso (New York, NY: Springer) pp 71–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inverse Problems.

Blog post
Fang J 2014 Rock Gobies Only Need a Minute to Change Color IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2015 Federal Aviation Administration: Commercial Space Launch Industry Developments Present Multiple Challenges (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia M J 2009 Teacher knowledge of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and effective classroom interventions Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines G G 2014 Comics Sales Rise, in Paper and Pixels New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInverse Problems
AbbreviationInverse Probl.
ISSN (print)0266-5611
ISSN (online)1361-6420
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles