How to format your references using the Inventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Been, M.D. Molecular Biology. Versatility of Self-Cleaving Ribozymes. Science 2006, 313, 1745–1747.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bull, J.J.; Parrish, C.R. Microbiology. A Binding Contract for Anthrax. Science 2002, 297, 201–202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesel, H.; Renz, A.; Hasselbach, F. Observation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss Anticorrelations for Free Electrons. Nature 2002, 418, 392–394.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Flick, K.; Scholander, C.; Chen, Q.; Fernandez, V.; Pouvelle, B.; Gysin, J.; Wahlgren, M. Role of Nonimmune IgG Bound to PfEMP1 in Placental Malaria. Science 2001, 293, 2098–2100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane, L. Knowledge and Discourse Matters; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119079316.
An edited book
Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on MMESE; Long, S., Dhillon, B.S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer: Singapore, 2016; Vol. 406; ISBN 9789811023224.
A chapter in an edited book
Thakker, D.; Dimitrova, V.; Lau, L.; Yang-Turner, F.; Despotakis, D. Making Sense of Linked Data: A Semantic Exploration Approach. In Mastering Data-Intensive Collaboration and Decision Making: Research and practical applications in the Dicode project; Karacapilidis, N., Ed.; Studies in Big Data; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 71–87 ISBN 9783319026114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inventions.

Blog post
Andrew, E. New Seaweed Tastes Just Like Bacon When Fried Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Bankruptcy Reform: Value of Credit Counseling Requirement Is Not Clear; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batson, G. Head Start and at -Risk Students: Perceptions of Administrators, Practitioners, and Parents. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Seeing a Former Champion Beyond His Combative Side. New York Times 2011, B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInventions
ISSN (online)2411-5134

Other styles