How to format your references using the Inventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sapienza, C. Molecular Biology. Do Watson and Crick Motor from X to Z? Science 2007, 315, 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Louf, R.; Barthelemy, M. How Congestion Shapes Cities: From Mobility Patterns to Scaling. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexandre, C.; Baena-Lopez, A.; Vincent, J.-P. Patterning and Growth Control by Membrane-Tethered Wingless. Nature 2014, 505, 180–185.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Plane, J.M.C.; Murray, B.J.; Chu, X.; Gardner, C.S. Removal of Meteoric Iron on Polar Mesospheric Clouds. Science 2004, 304, 426–428.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willis, D.O. Business Basics for Dentists; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: West Sussex, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118783368.
An edited book
Networked RFID Systems and Lightweight Cryptography: Raising Barriers to Product Counterfeiting; Cole, P.H., Ranasinghe, D.C., Eds.; First edition.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; ISBN 9783540716402.
A chapter in an edited book
Okitsu, K. Sonochemical Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles. In Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems; Ashokkumar, M., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011; pp. 131–150 ISBN 9789048138869.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inventions.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Ultracold Molecules Nest Like Russian Dolls Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control System: Selected Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Operations, Modernization, and Structure; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Llamas, A.L. ALLTAP Solutions, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Court Weighs Right to Guns, And Its Limits. New York Times 2008, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInventions
ISSN (online)2411-5134

Other styles