How to format your references using the Inventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Highfield, R. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Selling Science to the Public. Science 2000, 289, 59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Varmus, H.; Harlow, E. Science Funding: Provocative Questions in Cancer Research. Nature 2012, 481, 436–437.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonasio, R.; Tu, S.; Reinberg, D. Molecular Signals of Epigenetic States. Science 2010, 330, 612–616.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Franzese, G.; Malescio, G.; Skibinsky, A.; Buldyrev, S.V.; Stanley, H.E. Generic Mechanism for Generating a Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition. Nature 2001, 409, 692–695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller, R.R. Executive’s Guide to IT Governance; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118540176.
An edited book
Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology; Thomopoulos, S., Birman, V., Genin, G.M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461433163.
A chapter in an edited book
Yesilonis, I.D.; Pouyat, R.V. Carbon Stocks in Urban Forest Remnants: Atlanta and Baltimore as Case Studies. In Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems; Lal, R., Augustin, B., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 103–120 ISBN 9789400723658.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inventions.

Blog post
Hale, T. The World Reacts To The Shooting Of Harambe The Gorilla Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office TANF and Child Welfare Programs: Increased Data Sharing Could Improve Access to Benefits and Services; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patrick, N.S. Employees’ Perceptions of Employers’ Response After Workplace Injury. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University: Boca Raton, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Mets Trot Out Reliever Of Last Resort. New York Times 2010, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInventions
ISSN (online)2411-5134

Other styles