How to format your references using the Inventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, P.C. Planetary Science. Cold-Trapping Mars’ Atmosphere. Science 2011, 332, 797–798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higgins, A.M.; Jones, R.A. Anisotropic Spinodal Dewetting as a Route to Self-Assembly of Patterned Surfaces. Nature 2000, 404, 476–478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conrad, C.P.; Steinberger, B.; Torsvik, T.H. Conrad et al. Reply. Nature 2013, 503, E4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jung, H.Y.; Kang, Y.; Hwang, A.Y.; Lee, C.K.; Han, S.; Kim, D.-H.; Bae, J.-U.; Shin, W.-S.; Jeong, J.K. Origin of the Improved Mobility and Photo-Bias Stability in a Double-Channel Metal Oxide Transistor. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3765.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimer, T.; Werner, M. Die Zukunft Der Mikrosystemtechnik; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2004; ISBN 9783527603886.
An edited book
High Density Lipoproteins: From Biological Understanding to Clinical Exploitation; von Eckardstein, A., Kardassis, D., Eds.; Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 224; ISBN 9783319096643.
A chapter in an edited book
Raghavan, P.; Munaga, S.; Ramos, E.R.; Lambrechts, A.; Jayapala, M.; Catthoor, F.; Verkest, D. A Customized Cross-Bar for Data-Shuffling in Domain-Specific SIMD Processors. In Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2007: 20th International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, March 12-15, 2007. Proceedings; Lukowicz, P., Thiele, L., Tröster, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 57–68 ISBN 9783540712671.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inventions.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Exxon’s Rex Tillerson And The Rise Of Big Oil In American Politics Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology Investment Management: An Overview of GAO’s Assessment Framework (Exposure Draft); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, A. Poetry as a Museum. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perry, W.J.; Shultz, G.P. How to Build on the Start Treaty. New York Times 2010, WK11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInventions
ISSN (online)2411-5134

Other styles