How to format your references using the Inventions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inventions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lynch-Stieglitz, J. Ocean science. Hemispheric asynchrony of abrupt climate change. Science 2004, 304, 1919–1920.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kofoed, E.M.; Vance, R.E. Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines inflammasome specificity. Nature 2011, 477, 592–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Little, A.F.; van Oppen, M.J.H.; Willis, B.L. Flexibility in algal endosymbioses shapes growth in reef corals. Science 2004, 304, 1492–1494.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsai, W.-W.; Wang, Z.; Yiu, T.T.; Akdemir, K.C.; Xia, W.; Winter, S.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Shi, X.; Schwarzer, D.; Plunkett, W.; et al. TRIM24 links a non-canonical histone signature to breast cancer. Nature 2010, 468, 927–932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cazdyn, E.; Szeman, I. After Globalization; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444396478.
An edited book
Historical Archaeologies of Capitalism; Leone, M.P., Knauf, J.E., Eds.; Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology; 2nd ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319127590.
A chapter in an edited book
Perner, A.; Pedersen, U.G. Diagnosing Hypovolemia in Critically III Patients. In Intensive Care Medicine; Vincent, J.-L., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; pp. 39–45 ISBN 9781441955616.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inventions.

Blog post
Hale, T. Guys, This Smartphone App Can Accurately Test Your Sperm Count Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Small Business Administration: Enhancements Needed for Loan Monitoring System Benchmark Study; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vargo, G. Social protest and the novel: Chartism, the radical press, and early Victorian fiction. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Chechen Issues New Threat. New York Times 2004, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInventions
ISSN (online)2411-5134

Other styles