How to format your references using the IntraVital citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IntraVital. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. NASA’s new environmental satellite shows its sensitive side. Nature 2000; 404:913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz MW, Porte D Jr. Diabetes, obesity, and the brain. Science 2005; 307:375–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park S, Vohs JM, Gorte RJ. Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid-oxide fuel cell. Nature 2000; 404:265–7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pighin JA, Zheng H, Balakshin LJ, Goodman IP, Western TL, Jetter R, Kunst L, Samuels AL. Plant cuticular lipid export requires an ABC transporter. Science 2004; 306:702–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tatham M, Morton K. Developments in Speech Synthesis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Ferronsky VI. Dynamics of the Earth: Theory of the Planet’s Motion Based on Dynamic Equilibrium. Revised and updated edition of the book in Russian “Dinamika Zemly: Teoria dvizhenija planety na osnovah dinamicheskogo ravnovesia” by S. I. Ferronsky and S. V. Ferronsky, Nauchniy Mir, 2007. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Honda K, Hu R, Neykova R, Chen T-C, Demangeon R, Deniélou P-M, Yoshida N. Structuring Communication with Session Types. In: Agha G, Igarashi A, Kobayashi N, Masuhara H, Matsuoka S, Shibayama E, Taura K, editors. Concurrent Objects and Beyond: Papers dedicated to Akinori Yonezawa on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. page 105–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IntraVital.

Blog post
Andrew D. This Photo Of Someone’s Shiny Legs Is An Illusion, And We’re Freaking Out [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: DOD’s Acquisition Policies and Guidance Need to Incorporate Additional Best Practices and Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powers KL. Real-time video streaming: Impact on maternal anxiety and the maternal-infant bond. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Two Familiar Faces Rejoin Mets’ Bullpen. New York Times2017; :D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIntraVital
ISSN (print)2165-9079
ISSN (online)2165-9087

Other styles