How to format your references using the IntraVital citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IntraVital. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Risaliti G. Astrophysics: Cosmic lens reveals spinning black hole. Nature 2014; 507:173–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nanda R, Rhodes-Kropf M. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Financing experiments. Science 2015; 348:1200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newsome TP, Scaplehorn N, Way M. SRC mediates a switch from microtubule- to actin-based motility of vaccinia virus. Science 2004; 306:124–9.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Resta A, Leoni T, Barth C, Ranguis A, Becker C, Bruhn T, Vogt P, Le Lay G. Atomic structures of silicene layers grown on Ag(111): scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy observations. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown SR, Gregory WM, Twelves C, Brown J. A Practical Guide to Designing Phase II Trials in Oncology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
McGonagle JJ. Proactive Intelligence: The Successful Executive’s Guide to Intelligence. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Rapp R, Kämpfer B, Andronic A, Blaschke D, Fuchs C, Harada M, Hilger T, Kitazawa M, Kunihiro T, Petreczky P, et al. In-Medium Excitations. In: Friman B, Höhne C, Knoll J, Leupold S, Randrup J, Rapp R, Senger P, editors. The CBM Physics Book: Compressed Baryonic Matter in Laboratory Experiments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. page 335–529.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IntraVital.

Blog post
Andrew E. Men’s Magazine Prints Editions Using HIV-Infected Blood To Tackle Stigma [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Broadcast Television Transition: Several Challenges Could Arise in Administering a Subsidy Program for DTV Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young WB. First-Generation Undergraduate Researchers: Engaging and Validating Cultural Wealth-Based Self-Authors. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Dewan S. Governors’ Rulings Mean Lower Deductibles for Storm-Tossed Homeowners. New York Times2012; :B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIntraVital
ISSN (print)2165-9079
ISSN (online)2165-9087

Other styles