How to format your references using the Annals of Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Knight RT. Neuroscience. Neural networks debunk phrenology. Science 2007;316(5831):1578–1579.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Janak PH, Tye KM. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala. Nature 2015;517(7534):284–292.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Menz MHM, Dixon KW, Hobbs RJ. Ecology. Hurdles and opportunities for landscape-scale restoration. Science 2013;339(6119):526–527.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Stayrook S, Jaru-Ampornpan P, Ni J, et al. Crystal structure of the lambda repressor and a model for pairwise cooperative operator binding. Nature 2008;452(7190):1022–1025.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Pascoe N. Reliability Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Norman RA. Clinical Cases in Integrative Dermatology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Keramidas G, Xekalakis P, Kaxiras S. Applying Decay to Reduce Dynamic Power in Set-Associative Caches. In: Bosschere KD, Kaeli D, Stenström P, et al., editors. High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: Second International Conference, HiPEAC 2007, Ghent, Belgium, January 28-30, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007 p. 38–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Neurology.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. U.K. Suspends Ban On Controversial Pesticide Linked To Decline In Bee Populations [Internet]. IFLScience 2015;[cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/uk-suspends-ban-controversial-pesticide/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Is Working to Ensure Continuity but Needs to Quickly Address Information Security Weaknesses and Future Program Uncertainties. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sanabria A. Root Metaphor. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Lee L. Coziness, With Good Lines. New York Times 2007;F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Neurology
AbbreviationAnn. Neurol.
ISSN (print)0364-5134
ISSN (online)1531-8249
ScopeClinical Neurology
Neurology

Other styles