How to format your references using the International Urology and Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Urology and Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winzeler EA (2008) Malaria research in the post-genomic era. Nature 455:751–756
A journal article with 2 authors
Jahn R, Fasshauer D (2012) Molecular machines governing exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Nature 490:201–207
A journal article with 3 authors
Gnone G, Moriconi T, Gambini G (2006) Sleep behaviour: activity and sleep in dolphins. Nature 441:E10-1; discussion E11
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Eisaman MD, André A, Massou F, et al (2005) Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses. Nature 438:837–841

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blundell A, Harrison R, Turney B (2010) The Essential Guide to Becoming a Doctor. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Stillwell J (2005) The Four Pillars of Geometry. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Leuprecht C, Hall K (2014) Why Terror Networks are Dissimilar: How Structure Relates to Function. In: Masys AJ (ed) Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 83–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Urology and Nephrology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Scientists Successfully Reverse Emotions Associated With Memory. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Relocation of the Western Executive Seminar Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis TE (2010) Sedimentation solutions for the Port of Gulfport, MS. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Raghavan A (2013) A Lust for Zeros. New York Times MM30

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Urology and Nephrology
AbbreviationInt. Urol. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)0301-1623
ISSN (online)1573-2584

Other styles