How to format your references using the International Urology and Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Urology and Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kornilov O (2015) Chemical physics. The quantum halo state of the helium trimer. Science 348:498–499
A journal article with 2 authors
Oppo DW, Rosenthal Y (2010) Oceans. The great Indo-Pacific communicator. Science 328:1492–1494
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao J, Liu Q, Wang X (2014) Competitive dynamics on complex networks. Sci Rep 4:5858
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fulde M, Sommer F, Chassaing B, et al (2018) Publisher Correction: Neonatal selection by Toll-like receptor 5 influences long-term gut microbiota composition. Nature 563:E25

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton PJ (2010) Principles of Flight for Pilots. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Scheffers AM (2012) The Coastlines of the World with Google Earth: Understanding our Environment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Pertijs MAP, Huijsing JH (2006) SIGMA-DELTA ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION. In: Huijsing JH (ed) PRECISION TEMPERATURE SENSORS IN CMOS TECHNOLOGY. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 107–157

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Urology and Nephrology.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Fly Above Mount Etna With This Stunning Drone Footage. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Aviation Administration: Issues Concerning the Reauthorization of Aviation Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyd JL (2017) Interactive simulations: Improving learning retention in knowledge-based online training courses. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2016) Hip Injury Forces Kyrgios to Withdraw; Journeyman Challenges Murray. New York Times SP8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Urology and Nephrology
AbbreviationInt. Urol. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)0301-1623
ISSN (online)1573-2584

Other styles