How to format your references using the Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P 2003 Food for thought Nature 423 665
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Y and Daum P H 2002 Anthropogenic aerosols. Indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing Nature 419 580–1
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye Y, Meyer H H and Rapoport T A 2001 The AAA ATPase Cdc48/p97 and its partners transport proteins from the ER into the cytosol Nature 414 652–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Fischer M B, Roeckl C, Parizek P, Schwarz H P and Aguzzi A 2000 Binding of disease-associated prion protein to plasminogen Nature 408 479–83

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller R, Pöter H and Schwarze K 2011 Planen und Bauen mit Trapezprofilen und Sandwichelementen (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA)
An edited book
Wang Z-W 2008 Molecular Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press)
A chapter in an edited book
Chrysafiadi K and Virvou M 2015 Evaluation Advances in Personalized Web-Based Education Intelligent Systems Reference Library ed M Virvou (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 91–114

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 No, Sunscreen Will Not Give You Cancer IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998 FCC: Assessment and Collection of Regulatory Fees for Fiscal Year 1998 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ott W H 2017 An Analysis of the Coordinated Implementation of Digitally-Aided Close Air Support: An Integrated Systems Engineering and Test & Evaluation Approach Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B 2015 $25,000 Fine Proposed in Taxi’s Snub of Family New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Electronics
AbbreviationQuantum Elec. (Woodbury)
ISSN (print)1063-7818
ISSN (online)1468-4799
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles