How to format your references using the Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrope M 2001 Listing resumes for species at risk Nature 413 7
A journal article with 2 authors
Kozlova T and Thummel C S 2003 Essential roles for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila mid-embryonic development Science 301 1911–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehebauer M, Hayward P and Arias A M 2006 Notch, a universal arbiter of cell fate decisions Science 314 1414–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Nicol S, Pauly T, Bindoff N L, Wright S, Thiele D, Hosie G W, Strutton P G and Woehler E 2000 Ocean circulation off east Antarctica affects ecosystem structure and sea-ice extent Nature 406 504–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer V R 2013 Pitfalls and Errors of HPLC in Pictures (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA)
An edited book
Bourque G and El-Mabrouk N 2006 Comparative Genomics: RECOMB 2006 International Workshop, RCG 2006 Montreal, Canada, September 24-26, 2006 Proceedings vol 4205 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Hamidzadeh H R and Jazar R N 2010 Vibration of Multi-Layer thick cylinders Vibrations of Thick Cylindrical Structures ed R N Jazar (Boston, MA: Springer US) pp 79–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Davis J 2015 Stunning Rainbow of Fluorescent Corals Discovered in the Red Sea IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005 Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Vietnamese Version) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCorvey Z J 2013 Addressing disruptive behaviors in an After School Program classroom: The effects of the Daily Behavior Report Card Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B 2017 The Space Between Us New York Times C7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Electronics
AbbreviationQuantum Elec. (Woodbury)
ISSN (print)1063-7818
ISSN (online)1468-4799
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles