How to format your references using the Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woollings T 2011 Atmospheric science. Ocean effects of blocking Science 334 612–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Fei Y and Bertka C 2005 Planetary science. The interior of Mars Science 308 1120–1
A journal article with 3 authors
Fernandes C C, Podos J and Lundberg J G 2004 Amazonian ecology: tributaries enhance the diversity of electric fishes Science 305 1960–2
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Min J, Jang J, Keum D, Ryu S-W, Choi C, Jeong K-H and Ye J C 2013 Fluorescent microscopy beyond diffraction limits using speckle illumination and joint support recovery Sci. Rep. 3 2075

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins B R 2015 The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Pinamonti B and Sinagra G 2014 Clinical Echocardiography and Other Imaging Techniques in Cardiomyopathies (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Lőw P, Molnár K and Kriska G 2016 Dissection of a Snail (Helix pomatia) Atlas of Animal Anatomy and Histology ed K Molnár and G Kriska (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 49–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016 Crystals Found In Siberian Crater Are Unlike Anything Else Found On Earth IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2008 Traffic Safety: Grants Generally Address Key Safety Issues, Despite State Eligibility and Management Difficulties (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Surges G 2015 Generative Audio Systems: Musical Applications of Time-Varying Feedback Networks and Computational Aesthetics Doctoral dissertation (La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grippe J 2017 A Goal-Oriented Mother’s 2 Forbidden Words: ‘I Can’t’ New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Electronics
AbbreviationQuantum Elec. (Woodbury)
ISSN (print)1063-7818
ISSN (online)1468-4799
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles