How to format your references using the Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Church J A 2001 Climate change. How fast are sea levels rising? Science 294 802–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt P A and Hassold T J 2002 Sex matters in meiosis Science 296 2181–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Béarez P, DeVries T J and Ortlieb L 2003 Comment on “Otolith delta18O record of mid-Holocene sea surface temperatures in Peru” Science 299 203; author reply 203
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hoffmann D L, Standish C D, García-Diez M, Pettitt P B, Milton J A, Zilhão J, Alcolea-González J J, Cantalejo-Duarte P, Collado H, de Balbín R, Lorblanchet M, Ramos-Muñoz J, Weniger G-C and Pike A W G 2018 U-Th dating of carbonate crusts reveals Neandertal origin of Iberian cave art Science 359 912–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannon D L 2016 CISA® (Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Cuyper C D and Pérez-Cotapos S M L 2010 Dermatologic Complications with Body Art (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Sui Pheng L and Rui Z 2016 Research Methodology Service Quality for Facilities Management in Hospitals ed Z Rui (Singapore: Springer) pp 65–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Hale T 2016 How Long Would It Take You To Fall Through Earth? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1990 Transportation Infrastructure: Flexibility in Federal-Aid Funding Essential to Highway Program Restructuring (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shah S K 2017 Data Transmission Using Image Steganography in Quick Response (QR) Code Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt L F 2006 The Legacies They Left New York Times 14LI7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Electronics
AbbreviationQuantum Elec. (Woodbury)
ISSN (print)1063-7818
ISSN (online)1468-4799
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles