How to format your references using the Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P 2002 Job insecurity Nature 419 3
A journal article with 2 authors
Pallen M J and Wren B W 2007 Bacterial pathogenomics Nature 449 835–42
A journal article with 3 authors
Mottram D S, Wedzicha B L and Dodson A T 2002 Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction Nature 419 448–9
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Bevilacqua L, Doly S, Kaprio J, Yuan Q, Tikkanen R, Paunio T, Zhou Z, Wedenoja J, Maroteaux L, Diaz S, Belmer A, Hodgkinson C A, Dell’osso L, Suvisaari J, Coccaro E, Rose R J, Peltonen L, Virkkunen M and Goldman D 2010 A population-specific HTR2B stop codon predisposes to severe impulsivity Nature 468 1061–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez A 2016 VoLTE and ViLTE (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Benth F E 2013 Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance 2013: Editors: Vicky Henderson, Ronnie Sircar vol 2081, ed D Crisan, P Guasoni, K Manolarakis, J Muhle-Karbe, C Nee and P Protter (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Kuś Z and Nawrat A 2013 Object Tracking in a Picture during Rapid Camera Movements Vision Based Systemsfor UAV Applications Studies in Computational Intelligence ed A Nawrat and Z Kuś (Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing) pp 77–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Man Talks To Possum, And The Possum Talks Back IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1981 Opportunities Still Exist To Better Use the Mint’s Data Processing Center (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Racho M O 2012 Attributes of Asian American senior leaders who have retained their cultural identity and been successful in American corporations Doctoral dissertation (Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kang C and de la MERCED M J 2017 AT&T’s Blockbuster Bid For Time Warner Is in Limbo New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Electronics
AbbreviationQuantum Elec. (Woodbury)
ISSN (print)1063-7818
ISSN (online)1468-4799
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles