How to format your references using the Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx V 2013 Neurobiology: Brain mapping in high resolution Nature 503 147–52
A journal article with 2 authors
Cisek P and Kalaska J F 2004 Neural correlates of mental rehearsal in dorsal premotor cortex Nature 431 993–6
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarduno J A, Cottrell R D and Smirnov A V 2001 High geomagnetic intensity during the mid-Cretaceous from Thellier analyses of single plagioclase crystals Science 291 1779–83
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Opitz C A, Litzenburger U M, Sahm F, Ott M, Tritschler I, Trump S, Schumacher T, Jestaedt L, Schrenk D, Weller M, Jugold M, Guillemin G J, Miller C L, Lutz C, Radlwimmer B, Lehmann I, von Deimling A, Wick W and Platten M 2011 An endogenous tumour-promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor Nature 478 197–203

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthier J, Brakke K A and Berthier E 2016 Open Microfluidics (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Kowalewski M M, Garber P A, Cortés-Ortiz L, Urbani B and Youlatos D 2015 Howler Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Li J and Huang S 2007 Estimating Array Connectivity and Applying Multi-output Node Structure in Evolutionary Design of Digital Circuits Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware: 7th International Conference, ICES 2007, Wuhan, China, September 21-23, 2007 Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed L Kang, Y Liu and S Zeng (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 45–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Luntz S 2015 Cancer Vaccine Delivered Via Coated Bacteria IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002 Commercial Aviation: Air Service Trends At Small Communities Since October 2000 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shibata C L 2017 Building positive body image in adolescent girls: An evaluation of a body image prevention program Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C 2014 Texas Noir, by Directors Who Aren’t From Texas New York Times A25B

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Electronics
AbbreviationQuantum Elec. (Woodbury)
ISSN (print)1063-7818
ISSN (online)1468-4799
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles