How to format your references using the International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wright AR (2013) Realising Haldane’s vision for a Chern insulator in buckled lattices. Sci Rep 3:2736
A journal article with 2 authors
Efremov RG, Sazanov LA (2011) Structure of the membrane domain of respiratory complex I. Nature 476:414–420
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffith S, Goldwater D, Jacobson JM (2005) Robotics: self-replication from random parts. Nature 437:636
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tong L, Pakizeh T, Feuz L, Dmitriev A (2013) Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light. Sci Rep 3:2311

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Powsner RA, Palmer MR, Powsner ER (2013) Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Korbin JE, Krugman RD (2014) Handbook of Child Maltreatment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Hawkins JN (2016) The Predicament of the Quest for WCU Status and Seeking an Asian Flagship University. In: Douglass JA (ed) The New Flagship University: Changing the Paradigm from Global Ranking to National Relevancy. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 115–138

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) U.K. Is The Only G7 Country To INCREASE Fossil Fuel Subsidies. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ivy J (2011) The Psychological Effect of Parental Incarceration on School-Age Children. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Hometown; Perot Isn’t Necessarily Texarkana’s Favorite Son. New York Times 128

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Transactions on Systems Science and Applications
ISSN (online)2051-5642

Other styles