How to format your references using the International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alan Stern S (2003) The evolution of comets in the Oort cloud and Kuiper belt. Nature 424:639–642
A journal article with 2 authors
Duncan RP, Williams PA (2002) Ecology: Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis challenged. Nature 417:608–609
A journal article with 3 authors
McCormick MI, Watson S-A, Munday PL (2013) Ocean acidification reverses competition for space as habitats degrade. Sci Rep 3:3280
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kendall J-M, Stuart GW, Ebinger CJ, et al (2005) Magma-assisted rifting in Ethiopia. Nature 433:146–148

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle D (2014) Life in the Financial Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Giordan G, Pace E (2014) Religious Pluralism: Framing Religious Diversity in the Contemporary World. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
García-Colín LS, Dagdug L (2009) Solution of the Integral Equations. In: Dagdug L (ed) The Kinetic Theory of a Dilute Ionized Plasma. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Ancient Genomes Reveal Mass Migrations During the Bronze Age. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Computers in Government: We Couldn’t Do Without Them. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walther RL (2017) Approaches to Stream Restoration: Practices in Missouri and Illinois. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sack K (2011) Deadly Twisters Renew Questions About Pressure on Emergency Budgets. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Transactions on Systems Science and Applications
ISSN (online)2051-5642

Other styles