How to format your references using the International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chyba CF (2005) Atmospheric science. Rethinking Earth’s early atmosphere. Science 308:962–963
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz JH, Tattersall I (2015) ANTHROPOLOGY. Defining the genus Homo. Science 349:931–932
A journal article with 3 authors
Swiontek SE, Pulsifer DP, Lakhtakia A (2013) Optical sensing of analytes in aqueous solutions with a multiple surface-plasmon-polariton-wave platform. Sci Rep 3:1409
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Muravyova E, Golovnin A, Gracheva E, et al (2001) Loss of insulator activity by paired Su(Hw) chromatin insulators. Science 291:495–498

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allin P, Hand DJ (2014) The Wellbeing of Nations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Banagl M, Vogel D (2011) The Mathematics of Knots: Theory and Application. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Song H, Guimbretière F, Ambrose MA, Lostritto C (2007) CubeExplorer: An Evaluation of Interaction Techniques in Architectural Education. In: Baranauskas C, Palanque P, Abascal J, Barbosa SDJ (eds) Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2007: 11th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 10-14, 2007, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 43–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Titanium Dioxide Roofs Could Fight Air Pollution. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Mass Transit: Historical Patterns and Future Outlook. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abdeljaber SR (2015) High school mathematics teachers’ perceptions of mathematics education in northwest Florida. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) John Leguizamo in Nutty Professor Mode. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Transactions on Systems Science and Applications
ISSN (online)2051-5642

Other styles