How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Intervention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Intervention (GII). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cattaneo A. Astrophysics: The slow death of red galaxies. Nature. 2015;521(7551):164–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor PG., Townsend AR. Stoichiometric control of organic carbon-nitrate relationships from soils to the sea. Nature. 2010;464(7292):1178–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hewitt SC., Deroo BJ., Korach KS. Signal transduction. A new mediator for an old hormone? Science. 2005;307(5715):1572–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu Y., Hu X., Fu Y., Yang H., Gong Q. Ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials at optical communication range. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2338.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Piegorsch WW., Bailer AJ. Analyzing Environmental Data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Ba S. “Internet Plus” Pathways to the Transformation of China’s Property Sector. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Grangier D., Monay F., Bengio S. Learning to Retrieve Images from Text Queries with a Discriminative Model. In: Marchand-Maillet S, Bruno E, Nürnberger A, and Detyniecki M, editors. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: User, Context, and Feedback: 4th International Workshop, AMR 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, July 27-28, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 42–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Intervention.

Blog post
Hale T. Which Countries Consume The Most Antidepressants? IFLScience. Available from: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Options for Improving Sustainability and Mechanisms to Manage Solvency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilton LC. Case study on organic farming as a sustainable solution for African-American farmers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Beyond the Stats, a Met Admired. New York Times. 2016:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Intervention
ISSN (print)2213-1795
ISSN (online)2213-1809
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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