How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Intervention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Intervention (GII). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Douglas T. Materials science. A bright bio-inspired future. Science. 2003;299(5610):1192–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tilman D., Isbell F. Biodiversity: Recovery as nitrogen declines. Nature. 2015;528(7582):336–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ross RJ., Weiner MM., Lin H. PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs in the soma. Nature. 2014;505(7483):353–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bunker DE., Declerck F., Bradford JC., Colwell RK., Perfecto I., Phillips OL., et al. Species loss and aboveground carbon storage in a tropical forest. Science. 2005;310(5750):1029–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parke RD. Future Families. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Hanna G., de Villiers M. Proof and Proving in Mathematics Education: The 19th ICMI Study. vol. 15. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Ibraguimova L., Shatalov O. Non-equilibrium Kinetics behind Shock Waves Experimental Aspects. In: Brun R, editor. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 99–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Intervention.

Blog post
Andrews R. A Long-Lost Dark Age Kingdom Has Been Rediscovered In Scotland. IFLScience. Available from: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Budgetary and Fiscal Information Needs of the Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickinson S. Best practices in integrating acquisitions. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Pearl Theater to Close. New York Times. 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Intervention
ISSN (print)2213-1795
ISSN (online)2213-1809
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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